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Protocol Information

Martin van der Grinten
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Big Flats Plant Materials Center
RD #1, Route 352, Box 360A
Corning, New York 14830-0360
(607) 562-8404
(607) 562-8516
martin.vandergrinten@ny.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Aquifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Holly
Scientific Name: Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray
Common Name: Winterberry
Species Code: ILVE
Ecotype: Mt. Desert Island, Maine
General Distribution: Winterberry ranges from Newfoundland to Minnesota and south to Florida. Found in swamps, bogs and on shores of streams, ponds and lakes.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: 1 gallon container seedlings.
Height: 8 inches.
Root System: Plants have a good root system in containers.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Acadia National Park, Maine by Martin van der Grinten in October by hand harvest.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: After the berries are picked, they can be run through a dibuig or a kitchen blender for 30 seconds to remove the pulp and then laid on a fine screen to dry. Clean the seed by using the Clipper (Midget II model) seed cleaner, with a 8/64 round top screen, blank bottom screen and air 30% open.
Seeds/Kg: Varies – approximately 92,000 seeds per pound.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: This seed has a deep dormancy. Germination will be delayed to the second spring after sowing the seed.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Seed is placed in cold frames till germination. After germination, they are potted and placed in greenhouse. When the plants have sufficient growth, they are transplanted to lathe house.
Seed Propagation Method: Seed should be sown in the fall in flats placed in cold frames. Due to deep dormancy, the seed will germinate in the 2nd year.
Container Type and Volume: 1 gallon container.
Growing Media: Pro-Mix BX media.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Seed should be sown in late fall/early winter, to utilize the natural stratification.
% Emergence and Date: Good germination should occur in 2nd spring.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Sow seed in sturdy plastic flats with Metro-Mix 360 and cover with 1/3 to 1/2 inches of Metro-Mix. Place in a cold frame in late fall.
Establishment Phase: Once seedling has germinated, transplant to 5 inch pots with Metro-Mix 250. Monitor watering. Germination will occur in the 2nd year.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: When the seedlings are of sufficient size, transplant into 1 gallon containers, using Pro-Mix BX potting media. Fertilize with Osmocote slow release fertilizer. Monitor watering.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Once seedlings are transplanted into five inch pots, they can be placed in lathe house for continued growth.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: It takes 3 to 4 years to get a seedling to a 1 gallon size plant.
Harvest Date: October.
Storage Conditions:Store seed at 40°F in seed cooler.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Acadia National Park.
Outplanting Date: Transplant in spring/early summer.
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Refer to "The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation" by Dirr and Heuser, Varsity Press Inc., 1987.
References: Trees and Shrubs of New England, M. D. Dwelley, Down East Books, 1980.

Seeds of Woody Plants of North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Citation:
van der Grinten, Martin 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Big Flats Plant Materials Center, Corning, New York. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Aquifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Holly family
Scientific Name: Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray
Common Name: Michigan Holly/Winterberry
Species Code: ILVE
General Distribution: Swamps, edges of moist woods. Will grow in upland sites if cultivated. Full sun to full shade (but few berries in stand.) Flowers separate male and female plants. Flowers are tiny white. Red berries attached tightly, small, in profusion along twigs. A beautiful site when fruit is ripe. Height up to 15 ft.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Flowers from June to July. Seed is of the berry form and is harvested in Aug. to Sept.
Propagule Processing: Remove the pulp as soon as possible after picking by stripping off the pulp by hand or very lightly in a blender with water or rubbing the berry on a sieve and floating off the pulp. Dry seeds for 1 week. Once seeds have dried use the stratification method described below.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Requires 2 months of warm moist stratification followed by 2 months of of cold moist stratification. Use a Ziploc-style bag or a small Rubbermaid-style container to mix and equal amount of seeds with either perlite or vermiculite. Add a small amount of water, (There should be no visible water within the bag or container). Place in a room temperature setting for at least 2 months followed by cold storage (refrigerator or cold garage ar 33-42 degrees F) for at least 2 months. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3 HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate air. Vents open during summer months for cooling. Container Type: grows best in 24 cell (2" diameter) 14"x8.5"x4" deep flats, and other flats with 2" diameter or more and depths of 4" or more. Sowing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water, mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover the holes in the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper so that the soil does no fall out. Fill cells with damp soil and press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the plug cells again. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 1 seed in each small cell and 2 seeds in each cell with a diameter greater than 2.5". Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press the seeds into the dirt. Sow year-round due to unpredictable germination.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: Important emergency wildlife food in the winter. Slow growth

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.