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Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Scientific Name: Solidago
Common Name: Mountain Goldenrod (short)
Species Code: SOFL
Ecotype: Colorado, Sprague Lake (98-020s)
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Seed cleaning technique: Seed easily removed from seed heads.

Sprague Lake (98-020s) collected 9/16/98.

Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse, 65-70ºF day/55ºF night. Propagated on heat pad (set at 70ºF) under tent with misters set 8 am-8 pm, with 10 sec/15 min watering intervals. One week after germination, seedlings were moved to mister area without tent.
Germination media: Fafard Germinating Mix (superfine).
Growing media: Fafard Growing Mix 2.
Establishment Phase: Sowing/planting technique: Manually sown in 4x8 flat, lightly covered.
Time to germination: 3 days. Establishment Phase: Rapid.
Time to potting: 2-4 weeks.

Sprague Lake (98-020s) sowed 10/27/98.

Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Seed storage condition: Seed stored in the greenhouse.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Solidago seeds; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 28 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Aster Family
Scientific Name: Solidago
Common Name: Goldenrod
Species Code: SOLSPE
Ecotype: Great Smoky Mountains National Park
General Distribution: Throughout U.S. and southern Canada and Alaska. Found in moist or dry soils, common in open places.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container plug.
Height: 4-6" after cutbacks.
Root System: Firm full plug.
Propagule Collection: Original collections were made in the park along the Northbound Spur roadside, on northbound Gatlinburg Bypass, on the Foothills Parkway, and in Cades Cove, throughout, and in the Old Field; Seed has been also harvested from the National Plant Materials Center seed production blocks (those accessions not collected in Cades Cove) by National Park Service staff in 10/94 11/94, 11/95 and on 10/21/99.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed was originally hand-collected in the park. Seed from the National Plant Materials Center production fields is harvested in late fall, early winter, with a modified Trac-Vac which removes only the seed with pappus off the stem. This may be performed with any other vacuuming process such as a shop vac or modified leaf blower. The pappus is removed from the seed by a debearder modified by National Plant Materials Center staff for small seed lots. The seed lot is run first through a full-sized, two-screen clipper, with a solid bottom screen and top screen with holes large enough for the seed to fall through. Fan speed was set low enough to blow only empty seed out. (National Plant Materials Center staff modified the clipper to vary the fan speed with different sets of pulleys). Seed was transferred to a smaller clipper to further refine cleaning. (Solid bottom, 1/25 top screen with air on low and vents fully open.)
Seeds/Kg: Too small to weigh.
Germination: In 2000, around 350 plugs per gram of seed were produced, most plugs had multiple seedlings.
Purity: Estimated at 96%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: With solidago species, we have found that uniformity and speed of germination is greatly improved by giving seeded trays light, heat and moisture for about a week. The key factor appears to be warmth as surface-seeded trays given just mist without heat did not germinate as quickly or uniformly. Cool stratification has not improved uniformity of germination. Seed trays of Solidago sp. were taking from 14-40 days to germinate under standard greenhouse conditions. Germination using the above method begins at day five and is complete (i.e. target numbers have been reached) within a week. Usually seeding rates have to be adjusted downwards because cells have multiple seedlings.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures; daytime temperatures varied from 70-85ºF during the winter months depending on natural solar; night temperatures averaged around 65-68ºF. Extended daylight provided from 4:30-10:30 with high intensity lights.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand sown into plug trays.
Container Type and Volume: Seed is sown into 392 plug trays and seedlings transplanted to 72 plug trays or Ropak multipots.
Growing Media: Germination mix is used for starts in 392’s. For transplants to 72 plug trays and multipot containers: Sunshine #1 or #5 potting mix, amended with 18-6-8,180-day Nutricote SR at 0.15 lb./cu. ft., or 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of potting media.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Fall or winter.
% Emergence and Date: 5 days. The number of plugs produced per grams of seed sown was increased from 100 to over 300 by using warm, moist pretreatment.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seed is surface-sown on moist media in propagation trays, the trays are covered with plastic to trap moisture and placed on heat mats set to keep the media around 80-86ºF.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings were transplanted to multipots about 4 weeks from germination. (they may have to be hand-dug rather than pulled). The earlier seedlings are transplanted to amended media, the more quickly they seem to put on growth.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Several cutbacks of foliage may be needed during the production of the species to keep plants vigorous, encourage root growth and control pests. Plants are fertilized lightly approximately bi-weekly or as needed with soluble fertilizer at approximately 75-100 ppm N.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Two weeks prior to outplanting, the greenhouse is cooled down or plugs are moved outdoors, depending on weather, and fertilization is stopped.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: About 14 weeks from germination to finished plug.
Harvest Date: Plugs are not overwintered.
Seed storage: Stored in seed collection bags in the National Plant Materials Center seed cooler at 40ºF, 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: None indicated.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Great Smoky Mountains, National Plant Materials Center seed production blocks.
Outplanting Date: Spring and fall.
References: Brown, M. L. and R. G. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc.

Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. New York Botanical Garden.

Citation:
Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Solidago plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 28 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.