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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Lamiaceae
Family Common Name: Mint family
Scientific Name: Monarda fistulosa L.
Common Name: Wild Bergamot
Species Code: MONFIS
Ecotype: Open slope, Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.
General Distribution: M. fistulosa occurs from low to mid elevations and is found in open woods, fields and roadsides, from B.C east to Quebec, and south through the United States to Arizona, New Mexico,Texas, Louisiana, Alabama and Georgia.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 6 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 6 to 10 true leaves, 9 cm
Caliper:n/a
Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected in fall when capsules turn tan and papery. Seeds are black at maturity.
Capsules are collected in paper bags and are kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a thresher and office clipper.
Seed longevity is unknown.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 2,200,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 87%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month outdoor stratification for material grown in the Outdoor Nursery.
A 30 day cold moist stratification was used in the refrigerator for greenhouse grown material.
This species is reported to have up to a 97% germination rate in the presence of light.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are surface sown.
Growing media used is 70% 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 30% sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Media is kept slightly moist during germination. Initial germination appeared uniform and occurred following several days of temperatures at 21C or above during the day.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Root and shoot development occurs rapidly following germination. 4 to 6 true leaves were evident 3 weeks after germination. Plants reached root tightness in containers in 3 months.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest:6 months
Harvest Date: July
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Divisions of established nursery stock.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Deno, Norman, Penn State University, 1993.

Growing Colorado Plants From Seed: A State of the Art, Vol. 3: Forbs, U.S.D.I., NTIS General Technical Report, 1982.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff.; Wick, Dale. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Monarda fistulosa L. plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

David J. Horvath
Nursery Manager
Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery
17855 N. CR 2400E
Topeka, Illinois 61567
309-535-2185
309-535-3286
dhorvath@dnrmail.state.il.us


Family Scientific Name: Lamiaceae
Family Common Name: Mint family
Scientific Name: Monarda fistulosa L.
Common Name: Wild Bergamot
Species Code: MONFIS
Ecotype: Central Illinois, 650 feet msl elevation
General Distribution: M. fistulosa occurs from low to mid elevations in the Rockies and east to the northern Great Plains states.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 1+0 container plugs
Time To Grow: 10 Months
Target Specifications: Height: n/a, herbaceous perennial.
Caliper: n/a, herbaceous perennial.
Root System: firm root plug.
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from nursery stock. The plant flowers from approx. July 1 to August 20. Seed is harvested Sept. 9.
Propagule Processing: After drying, seed is cleaned by running it through the Dybvig, dry, then over the Clipper with atop screen of 1/20 and a bottom screen of 28x28. The last step is to run it through the Jessee Aspirator with both vents wide open.
8 ounces of seed is saved to sow one bench in either 64 flats of the Multipot #6, or 24 flats of the Multipot # 3 or #4.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed is damp stratified by mixing it with equal amounts of vermiculite and lightly dampening in a plastic bag or container. Store this seed for 3-4 months in a cold room of 34-36 degrees F.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Fully controlled greenhouse.
Propagation Method: Seed sown plugs.
Container Type and Volume: Multipot #3, #4, or #6 are used. Cell volumes are 6, 9, and 6 cubic inches, respectively.
Growing Media: Sterile, Pro-Mix PGX. Add vermiculite and perlite at a 10:1 ratio. Mix in 5 ounces of Osmocote, slow release fertilizer, 17-6-10, per cubic foot of soil. Ensure flats are tapped down to prevent settling.
Total Time to Harvest: 7-11 months, depending on weather and plant/root development.
Sowing Date: Three crops are started in the greenhouse with the first in late December and the last no later than the end of March.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Sow the seeds by hand by broadcasting. Try to sprinkle 3-5 seeds per cell. Seed purity rates vary from year to year. Thus, it is easier to thin than to transplant. Cover the seeds to one times their depth with the same growing media. Use a dibble board or roller to gently press seed and cover soil in the cell.
Establishment Phase: Set the greenhouse temperatures to be 70-80 degrees during the day, and 65-75 degrees at night.
75% germination is reached in about one week. Plants must be watered by hand during germination. Set the hose on gentle shower to prevent seeds from splashing out.
Active Growth Phase: Once germination is successful, the greenhouse temperature may be turned down gradually depending on outside temperatures. Plants are irrigated in the morning by soaking for 20 to 30 minutes. This allows the foliage to dry out during the day. Once true leaves appear, not cotyledons, the plants may be fertilized. Start with 50 ppm of Rapid Grow or Peter's Liquid Fertilizer once a week. This rate is increased to 200 ppm gradually, and, again, decreased to 50 ppm before moving the plants outside to the shadehouse. It is important to rinse fertilizer residue off the foliage by running the irrigation for 30 seconds. Plants should be thinned to 2 plants per cell. This should be accomplished before the roots are too extensive. When foliage reaches 8 to 10 inches, the plants need to be pruned back to 3 or 4 inches. This is accomplished by turning the flats on their sides and cutting with scissors or sheers. Make sure the clippings are all removed from the flats to prevent disease spread.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 7 months
Hardening Phase: The first greenhouse crop will be moved to a hoop house in late January to February. To acclimate the plants, the irrigation rate is reduced to 50 ppm before moving and greenhouse temperatures are decreased to 55-60 degrees day. The second and third crops are moved directly to the shadehouse in April and May. Again, greenhouse controls and fertilization rates are adjusted in preparation for the move. Plants that reach 8-10 inches in the shadehouse will require pruning also.
Length of Hardening Phase: 1 month
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Flats may be unplugged in October or November as long as most of the tops have died down.
Storage Conditions: Plugs that are not shipped during this fall's planting season may be stored for spring planting in cold rooms above freezing, preferably 40-50 degrees. Try to remove most of the dead foliage as you can before bagging the root plugs for storage. Store them on plastic bags to ensure the roots do not dry out.
Storage Duration: Approximately 4 to 6 months. Plugs may be shipped at any time as long as the receiver has cold storage.
Length of Storage: 4 to 6 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Illinois prairie sites to include State Parks, highway roadsides, and limited private lands. Prefers dry prairies.
Outplanting Date: September to November

Citation:
Flood, Roberta Mountz; Blessman, Gary.; Horvath, David J. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Monarda fistulosa L. plants (1+0 container plugs); Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery, Topeka, Illinois. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Lamiaceae
Family Common Name: Mint Family
Scientific Name: Monarda fistulosa
Common Name: Wild bergamot
Species Code: MONFIS
Ecotype: Shenandoah National Park
General Distribution: Quebec to Manitoba and British Columbia, south to Georgia, Louisiana and Arizona. Found in upland woods, thickets and prairies.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container plug seedling.
Height: 3-4”.
Root System: Firm, full plug that fills the container.
Propagule Collection: Collected at Shenandoah National Park, South end, Miles 98-102.5, Mile 3-4 by J. Englert on 8/20-1/92, 9/21/92 and 9/28/93.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed is hand-harvested from National Plant Materials Center production blocks in August. It is cleaned using a debearder, large clipper and small clipper, screens 1/25 + solid, low air flow, vents 1/4 open.
Seeds/Kg: 3,333,000.
Germination: Untested. Production has varied from 80 to 725 plugs per gram of seed sown. Between 500 and 700 plugs have been produced per gram of seed that is stratified. Plugs may have multiple seedlings.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed treatment: Germination has been improved, even doubled, by giving seeded trays a minimum of two weeks cool, moist stratification at 40ºF.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures; daytime temperatures varied from 70-85186;F during the winter months depending on natural solar; night temperatures averaged around 65-68ºF.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand sown into plug trays.
Container Type and Volume: Seed has been sown into 392 plug trays and seedlings transplanted to 72 plug trays or Ropak multipots, or direct sown into the 72 plug trays and multipots. Because we stratify the seeded trays, the volume of plugs needed determines if we direct seed into the final container.
Growing Media: Germination mix is used for starts in 392’s. For 72 plug trays and multipot containers: fill about 3/4 full of Sunshine #1 or #5 potting mix, amended with 18-6-8,180-day Nutricote SR at 0.15 lb./cu. ft., or 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of potting media. Cells are topped with germination mix and seed is sown into this.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: January.
% Emergence and Date: 7-10 days.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seed is hand-sown and lightly covered with germination mix. (It is easy to over seed the containers resulting in the need to thin seedlings later.) Trays are given a Triathlon fungicidal drench, covered in clear plastic and placed in a seed cooler for a 2 week stratification period.
Establishment Phase: Germination occurs within 7-10. Substrate is kept evenly moist during germination.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Monarda is especially susceptible to powdery mildew and can be bothered by the usual greenhouse pests such as broad and spider mites and white flies. Spot treat as needed. We have found that periodic cut backs rejuvenate top growth, allow air circulation, encourage root growth and eliminate many pests. These plants do not do well in plug trays for extended periods of time and may need spacing within the plug tray. Fertilized lightly approximately bi-weekly or as needed with soluble fertilizer at approximately 75-100 ppm N.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Two weeks prior to outplanting, the greenhouse is cooled down or plugs are moved outdoors, depending on weather, and fertilization is stopped.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: Approximately 13 weeks from germination to finished plug.
Harvest Date: Plugs are not overwintered.
Seed storage: In seed bags in National Plant Materials Center cooler at 40186;F and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: Germination has been improved, even doubled, by giving seeded trays a minimum of two weeks cool, moist stratification at 40ºF.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Field, National Plant Materials Center, Shenandoah National Park.
Outplanting Date: Spring.
Other Comments: Foliage has spicy fragrance.
References: Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. New York Botanical Garden.

Citation:
Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Monarda fistulosa seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Labiatae
Family Common Name: Mint Family
Scientific Name: Monarda fistulosa L.
Common Name: Wild bergamot, Bee balm
Species Code: MOFI
General Distribution: Of dry open, gravelly or rocky ground, oak or pine woodland, prairies, fields, and roadsides. Occasionally in sedge meadows or at edges of woods or thickets. A typical member of the Mint family with square stems and fragrant foliage when crushed. A showy terminal whorl of lilac to pink flowers. Height to 2'.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Flowers during July and August. Seed is 1/16" nutlets and is harvested in October. Cut seed head shake out seed. Extract more seeds by rubbing the seed heads on hand; the seeds will easily come out. Seeds are small and black. Seed is not cleaned.
Propagule Processing: Dry seeds for 1 to 2 weeks in open paper bags or open Rubbermaid-style bins. Keep in a cool dry place (refrigerator or cold garage) until planted. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Pre-Planting Treatments: None are used. The seed readily germinates on its own.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse made of Standard U.V. 3HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months to allow for cooling. Container Type: Grows best in 24 cell (2"diameter), 14"x8.5"x4" deep. Growing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Add enough water to the soil to saturate. Mix soil with a trowel. Cover the holes on the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper, as the soil will fall through. Fill cells with damp soil and press the soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Thoroughly moisten soil in the plug cells, but do not saturate. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 3-5 seeds in each cell. Covet the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press seeds into the dirt. Sow February until late July.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be kept consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are transplanted into the field from late May to early October. Flats that are not transplanted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another growing season. Transplant if needed.
Other Comments: Attracts a variety of butterflies and birds. May be susceptible to deer grazing. High germination rate.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Monarda fistulosa L. plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.