Untitled Page
About Us
Journal
Propagation Protocol Database
Links
Subscribe to Native Plant Journal
Print View

Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Scientific Name: Elymus trachycaulus
Common Name: Slender Wheat Grass
Species Code: ELTR7
Ecotype: Colorado, Meeker Stock West (98-171s)
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Collected at Meeker Stock West (98-171s).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse, 65-70ºF day/55ºF night. Propagated under tent on heat pad (set to 70ºF) with misters set 8 am-8 pm, with 10 sec/15 min watering intervals. One week after germination, seedlings were moved to mister area without tent.
Germination media: Fafard Germinating Mix (superfine).
Growing media: Fafard Growing Mix 2.

Meeker Stock West (98-171s) sowed 12/23/98.

Establishment Phase: Sowing/planting technique: Manually sowed in 4x8 flat. Lightly covered.
Time to germination: 12 days.
Establishment Phase: Uniform.
Time to potting: 3 weeks.

Meeker Stock West sowed 12/23/98.

Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Seed storage condition: Seed stored in the greenhouse.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Elymus trachycaulus seeds; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 25 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Mark E. Majerus
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center
99 South River Road, Rte. 2, Box 1189
Bridger, Montana 59014-9718
(406) 662-3579
(406) 662-3428
mmajerus@mt.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass
Scientific Name: Elymus trachycaulus
Common Name: Slender wheatgrass
Species Code: ELTRT
Ecotype: See “Other Comments:”
General Distribution: Moist to well-drained soils along rivers, meadows, and under open forest canopy; Labrador to Alaska, south to the mountains of West Virginia, Missouri, New Mexico, and California; northwestern Mexico.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Target Specifications: Harvest yields vary due to weather and age of stand. Average annual production is 180 kg/ha (160 lbs/ac).
Propagule Collection: Wildland collection occurs early to late August when caryopsis are tannish, at the hard dough stage, and not yet shattering (natural dispersal) from the spike; easily hand-harvested. One collection hour/person will yield an average 185 grams (6.5 oz) clean seed (ranges 131 to 247 grams and varies by year, stand density, and collector experience).
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed is spread out on a tarp in a dry, sheltered environment and turned daily for approximately 3-5 days, until no moisture or warmth is detected. After drying, material is processed with a Wintersteiger plot combine at concave 1/4 open, speed 1000 rpm, and medium wind. Seed is threshed with a hammermill through a 8/64” round hole screen, and air-screen processed on a Clipper M2B or Eclipse cleaner over a 10/64” round hole screen. Due to medium-sized seed, absence of awns, fluff, or other seed debris, and good seed flow, this species is relatively easy to clean. Larger seed lots are processed most efficiently with mechanized cleaning equipment and smaller seed lots usually require more hand labor.
Seeds/Kg: 317,000.
Germination: 92%.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Seeds placed in 0-1ºC (32-34ºF) for a 10-day cold stratification treatment and then exposed to 22-25ºC (72-77ºF).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Seedbed is firm and free of weeds with good field moisture to 4” depth.
Seed Propagation Method: Direct seeding.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Spring or dormant fall.
Sowing/Planting Technique: 25-30 pure live seed/ft. (0.3 m) row, irrigated 91cm (36 in) row spacing, seeded with 2-row double-disk planter with depth bands, seeding depth 1.3 cm (0.5 in).
Establishment Phase: Soil surface is kept moist throughout the 10 day germination and emergence period (also helps prevent soil crusting); lower rates of Buctryl or bromoxynil are applied at 3-5 leaf stage to control broadleaf weeds.

Fertilizer application is not recommended the first year, as it generally stimulates weed growth and competition.

Length of Establishment Phase: 2 growing seasons.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Spring to fall; broadleaf weed control with herbicides must occur prior to boot stage; soil moisture is critical during boot stage, milk stage of seed development, and post harvest to pre-freezeup – no irrigation is applied during flowering (pollination); fertilizer is broadcast at 100 lbs actual N/40 lbs actual P/acre in mid-September.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 2 to 3 growing seasons.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Cultivated harvest occurs mid to late July, with a mean harvest date of July 17 at the Bridger Plant Materials Center.

A John Deer swather is used to cut stems into windrows for direct combining, or, to minimize seed loss, a temporary “diaper”- a heavy piece of plastic or canvas clipped under belt draper – is attached for direct catchment.

Seed Storage: Seed is placed in plastic seed bags and stored in a cool, dry environment.
Seed Dormancy: Classified as physiological dormancy

Length of Storage: Storage Duration: 3 to 5 years.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Sites: Madison Junction to Old Faithful, Craig Pass, Arnica Creek, Fishing Bridge to Lake Butte, Lake Butte to Sylvan Pass, Tower Junction to Northeast Entrance.
Other Comments: Ecotype: 13 different Yellowstone National Parl accessions periodically collected and produced from 1988 to 2000. Grassland and forest ecological zones include various Idaho fescue habitats, tufted hairgrass/sedge; subalpine fir phases, and various Douglas fir, lodgepole pine, and Engelman spruce habitats. Elevation range 2,012 m to 2,573 m (6,600 ft to 8,440 ft).

Comment: Slender wheatgrass is a short-lived perennial. Plant establishment is rapid and will persist in the native plant community for approximately 5 years.

References: Manual of the Grasses of the United States, A. S. Hitchcock, Second Edition, Two Volumes, Dover Publications, Inc., 1970.

Flora of the Pacific Northwest, C. L. Hitchcock and A. Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Montana Interagency Plant Materials Handbook, Montana State University, Extension Service Bulletin EB 69, June 1990.

Yellowstone Vegetation – Consequences of Environment and History in a Natural Setting, Don G. Despain, Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1990.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, C. C. Baskin and J. M. Baskin, Academic Press, 2001.

Citation:
Winslow, Susan R. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Elymus trachycaulus seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center, Bridger, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 25 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass family
Scientific Name: Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shimmers
Common Synonym: Agropyron trachycaulum
Common Name: Slender wheatgrass
Species Code: ELYTRA
General Distribution: E. trachycaulus is found from the alpine to low elevation grassland throughout the westrn and central United States and Canada.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 56 days. Germination occurs at 17D/12N C alternating temperature cycle.
References: McDonough, W. T. (1970). Germination of 21 species collected from high-elevation rangeland in Utah. Amer. Midl. Nat. 84, 551-554.
Table 10.31 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2007. Propagation protocol for production of container Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shimmers plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 25 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass family
Scientific Name: Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners
Common Synonym: Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte.
Common Name: Bearded wheatgrass
Species Code: ELYTRA
General Distribution: E. trachycaulus ssp. trachycaulus is found from Alaska to Labrador and south to Kansas, California and Arizona.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds are non dormant.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Germination occurs at 15D/4N C alternating temperature cycle.
References: McElgunn, J. D. (1974). Germination response of forage grasses to constant and alternating temperatures. Can. J. Plant Sci. 54, 265-270.
Table 10.25 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2007. Propagation protocol for production of container Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 25 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.