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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Elaeagnaceae
Family Common Name: Oleaster family
Scientific Name: Shepherdia canadensis Nutt.
Common Name: Canadian Buffaloberry
Species Code: SHECAN
Ecotype: Aspen forest, Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT.
General Distribution: S. canadensis is found from Alaska to Oregon, and east to the Atlantic coast in Canada and the northern U.S.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 800 ml containers
Time To Grow: 2 Years
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container cutting
Height: 15 to 20 cm
Caliper: 8 mm
Root System: firm plug in 800 ml containers.
Propagule Collection: Propagation Method: Pre-Rooting.
Type of Cutting: Semi-softwood stem tip cuttings.
Cuttings are collected in May when leaf buds have just begun to break dormancy. Cuttings are 15 to 20 cm in length and 7 mm in caliper.
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept moist and under refrigeration prior to treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Cutting Treatments: Cuttings were cut into 20 to 30 cm lengths, with the base recut and 1/3 of leaves or buds removed. Cuttings were placed in a 2 minute fungicide bath to remove surface pathogens.
Cuttings were treated with 8000 ppm IBA rooting hormone, and stuck in a mist bed with at least 2 nodes below the surface of the rooting medium.
Rooting %: 67%
Semi-softwood cuttings gave the highest rooting percentages when treated with 8000 ppm IBA.
Softwood cuttings treated with 1000 to 3000 ppm IBA had a rooting percentage of 15 to 27%.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

The outdoor mistbed has automatic intermittent mist that is applied at 6 second intervals every 6 minutes. Too frequent misting will result in leaf and stem rot. Misting frequency is increased or decreased according to daily outdoor temperature and wind.
Bottom heat is maintained at 21C with heating cables buried 12 cm beneath rooting medium. Rooting medium is 50% perlite and 50% sand.
Mistbed is covered with shadecloth during rooting. After cuttings are potted, they are moved to an outdoor shadehouse for 2 weeks. They are later moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery and are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th. First avereage frost is September 5th, although freezing temperatures can be expected anytime in Glacier National Park.
Establishment Phase: Time to Transplant: 8 weeks.
Cuttings that were pre rooted were lifted out of mistbed after adequete root systems were formed. Roots generate from the basal cut below the surface of the rooting media.
Length of Establishment Phase: 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After cuttings were lifted from the mistbed, they were potted into 800 ml containers. Growing medium used is 70% 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 30% coarse sand and perlite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 2 grams of Osmocote and 1 gram of Micromax per container. Cuttings were irrigated after potting and placed in the shadehouse for 2 weeks. After establishment in the shadehouse, plants were moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 2 years from cuttings
Harvest date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Storage Duration: October to April
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Other Comments: Sheperdia grows at a moderate rate from seeds and cuttings. Seedlings would benefit from Frankia rhizobacteria inoculation during production.
Because it forms a symbiotic relationship with N-fixing bacteria, Sheperdia is a good restoration species on sites with poor soils. Sheperdia is a source of winter browse for deer and elk and bears and birds feed on the fruit.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, N. Deno, published June 1993.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Luna, Tara; Corey, Susan.; Wick, Dale.; Evans, Jeff. 2008. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Shepherdia canadensis Nutt. plants (800 ml containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Elaeagnaceae
Family Common Name: Oleaster Family
Scientific Name: Shepherdia canadensis Nutt.
Common Name: Canadian Buffaloberry
Species Code: SHECAN
Ecotype: Open lodgepole pine forest, near Lake McDonald, Glacier National Park, Flathead County, MT 1030 meters
General Distribution: S. canadensis is found in open to wooded areas; from Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic coast on dry or moist soils on sites at elevations from 1000 to 2500 meters.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 8 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 4.5 cm
Caliper: 4 mm
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected when fruit turns red in early to mid August. Fruits are collected in plastic bags and kept under refrigeration prior to cleaning. Seeds are dark brown at maturity.
Propagule Processing: Fruits are extracted from fruit by maceration using a Dyb-vig cleaner and screens.
Seeds/Kg: 110,000/kg
Seed Storage: up to 5 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physical-physiological dormancy.
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 49% to 75%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are scarified by placing them into a wet tumbling scarification treatment for 5 days. Seeds are wet tumbled with 1 cm (0.5 in) gravel and water with daily water changes. Imbibed, gently scarified seeds are placed into a 90 day cold, moist stratification at 1 to 3C.
Seeds are sown as germinants as they break dormancy during stratification.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor Nursery.
Container Type and Growing Medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, vermiculite.
Sheperdia germinates at temperatures just above freezing during the end of the stratification period and emerges under cooler greenhouse temperatures during early spring. Preferred greenhouse temperatures after planting germinants are 18 C/ 12 C (65/55 F) day/night alternating 12 hr temperature cycle. Seedlings are grown for 2 to 3 months, un greenhouse followed by growth in the outdoor shadehouse for 6 months.
Establishment Phase: Germination is non-uniform and continues over a 3 week period. Cotyledons emerge 10 days after planting germinants. True leaves appear 3 weeks after sowing. Seedlings are irrigated only when the medium is dry on the surface at this stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings produce multiple leaves 8 weeks after sowing.
Seedlings are irrigated only when medium becomes dry; this species does not tolerate frequent irrigation.
Seedlings are fertilized twice weekly with 20-10-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm during this stage. Plants are fully root tight 18 weeks after sowing.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 18 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Seedlings are given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 8 months
Harvest Date:September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Lake McDonald, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Outplanting Survival at 5 Years: 88%

Outplanting Site: Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Outplanting Survival at 4 Years: 13%

Other Comments: Buffaloberry forms a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixing bacteria. It is rated as good for soil stabilization and restoration on soils with poor nutrient status.
It resprouts following surface fires.
The twigs are browsed by deer and elk and the berries are eaten by bears and birds.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press,7th printing, 1981.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press,1998.

Seeds of the Woody Plants of North America, Young and Young, Dioscoirides Press Inc,1992.

Glacier National Park Propagation Records,unpublished.

1996 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J., Lamb, B., and Funk, T., unpublished.

1998 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J. and Kimball, S., unpublished.

Citation:
Luna, Tara; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Shepherdia canadensis Nutt. plants (160 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Elaeagnaceae
Scientific Name: Shepherdia canadensis
Common Name: Buffaloberry
Species Code: SHCA
Ecotype: Colorado, GMV (98-033c, 98-090c)
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: GMV (98-033c) collected 6/19/98; GMV (98-090c) collect 7/28/98.
Pre-Planting Treatments:
Treatment: GMV (98-033c) treated with rootinghor; GMV (98-090c) treated with 1:15 rootinghor.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: GMV (98-033c) grown in per/ver media, located to mister; GMV (98-090c) grown in per/ver/germ, located to mister.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2001. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Shepherdia canadensis plants; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Elaeagnaceae
Family Common Name: Oleaster family
Scientific Name: Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.
Common Name: Canadian buffaloberry
Species Code: SHECAN
General Distribution: S. canadensis is found from Alaska east to the Atlantic coast and south to Oregon, Idaho and Montana.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 60 days. Germination occurs at 21 C.
References: McLean, A. (1967). Germination of forest range species from southern British Columbia. J. Range Manage. 20, 321-322.
Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Elaeagnaceae
Family Common Name: Oleaster family
Scientific Name: Shepherdia canadensis (Pursh) Nutt.
Common Name: Silver buffaloberry
Species Code: SHEARG
General Distribution: S. argentea is found from Alaska to Oregon and east across Canada and the northern United States to the Atlantic coast.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seed dormancy is physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 60 to 90 days.
References: Shaw, N. (1984). Producing bareroot seedlings of native shrubs. Pp. 6-15. In: P. M. Murphy (compiler). The challenge of producing native plants for the Intermountain area. Proceedings Intermountain Nurseryman's Association 1983 Conference, 8-11 August 1983, Las Vegas, Nevada. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-168.
Table 10.39 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Shepherdia canadensis (Pursh) Nutt. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.