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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Elaeagnaceae
Family Common Name: Oleaster family
Scientific Name: Elaeagnus commutata Bernh. ex Rydb.
Common Synonym: Elaeagnus argentea Pursh, non Moench
Common Name: Silverberry
Species Code: ELECOM
Ecotype: Open rocky slopes, Saint Mary, 1500m elevation, Glacier National Park, MT.
General Distribution: E. commutata occurs from B.C. to Quebec, south through the Rocky Mountains to Idaho, Montana and Utah. It is frequently found in moist slopes and in riparian zones at mid to low elevations.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 8 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container cutting
Height: 30 cm
Caliper: 5 mm
Root System: firm plug in 172 ml containers.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected when fruit turns silver in late August through September. Seeds are brown at maturity. Seeds are stored in plastic bags under refrigeration prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned by maceration using a Dybvig seed cleaner and are air dried.
Seed longevity is 1 to 3 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 8,360/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 50%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed into a 48 hour running water rinse in warm water to remove a soluble inhibitor. Next, seeds are placed in a 60 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are placed in fine mesh bags and buried in moist peat moss in ventilated containers under refrigeration at 3 C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor Nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium. Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered an remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th. First average frost is September 5th, although freezing temperatures can be expected anytime in Glacier National Park.
Establishment Phase: Germination is uniform and usually complete in 2 weeks.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedling growth is rapid following germination. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm. Seedlings increase in height to 17 centimeters in 10 weeks.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 14 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 8 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Other Comments: E. commutata is an excellent restoration species for slope and streambank stabilization.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished. Growing Colorado Plants from Seed, A State of the Art. Vol. 1: Shrubs, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT., U.S.F.S. General Technical Report INT-103.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Citation:
Johnson, Kathy; Wick, Dale.; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Elaeagnus commutata Bernh. ex Rydb. plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 29 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Elaeagnaceae
Family Common Name: Oleaster family
Scientific Name: Elaeagnus commutata Bernh. ex Rydb.
Common Synonym: Elaeagnus argentea Pursh, non Moench
Common Name: Silverberry
Species Code: ELECOM
Ecotype: Open rocky slopes, Saint Mary, 1600m elevation, Glacier National Park, MT.
General Distribution: E. commutata occurs from B.C. to Quebec, south through the Rocky Mountains to Idaho,Montana and Utah. It is frequently found in moist soils and riparian areas from mid to low elevations.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 800 ml containers
Time To Grow: 1 Years
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container cutting
Height: 30 cm
Caliper: 5 mm
Root System: firm plug in 800 ml containers.
Propagule Collection: Vegetative Propagation Method: Pre-Rooting
Type of Cutting: Spring hardwood and Softwood stem tip cuttings.
Cuttings are collected in mid May. Cuttings collected in mid-May were fully leafed but without flower bud development.
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept moist and under refrigeration prior to pre treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Cutting Treatments: Cuttings were cut into 20 to 30 cm lengths, with the base recut and 1/3 of leaves or buds removed. Cuttings were placed in a 2 minute fungicide bath to remove surface pathogens. Cuttings were treated with 4000 ppm Hormex powder and stuck in a mist bed with at least 2 nodes below the surface of the rooting medium. Rooting quality was excellent with this treatment.
Rooting %: 75%
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

The outdoor mistbed has automatic intermittent mist that is applied at 6 second intervals every 6 minutes. Too frequent misting will result in leaf and stem rot. Misting frequency is increased or decreased according to daily outdoor temperature and wind. Bottom heat is maintained at 21C with heating cables buried 12 cm beneath rooting medium. Rooting medium is 50% perlite and 50% sand. Mistbed is covered with shadecloth during rooting. After cuttings are potted, they are moved to an outdoor shadehouse for 4 weeks. They are later moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery and are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached. Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Time to Transplant: 8 weeks.
Cuttings that were pre rooted were lifted out of mistbed after adequete root systems were formed. Roots generate from the basal cut.
Length of Establishment Phase: 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After cuttings were lifted from the mistbed, they were potted into 800 ml containers. Growing medium used is 70% 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 30% coarse sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 2 grams of Osmocote and 1 grams of Micromax per 800 ml container. Cuttings were irrigated after potting and placed in the shadehouse for 4 weeks. After establishment in the shadehouse, plants were moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 1 year from cuttings
Harvest Date: May
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site:Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Other Comments: At least 4,000 ppm IBA treatment is needed for high rooting percentages.
E. commutata is a good restoration species for slope and streambank stabilization.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Growing Colorado Plants from Seed, A State of the Art. Vol. 1: Shrubs, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT., U.S.F.S. General Technical Report INT-103.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Citation:
Luna, Tara; Wick, Dale.; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Elaeagnus commutata Bernh. ex Rydb. plants (800 ml containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 29 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Elaeagnaceae
Family Common Name: Oleaster family
Scientific Name: Elaeagnus commutata Bernh.
Common Name: Silverberry
Species Code: ELACOM
General Distribution: E. commutata is found from British columbia to Quebec and south to Utah in the western United States.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seed dormancy is physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 30 to 90 days. Germination occurs at 30D/20N C alternating temperature cycle.
References: Morgenson, G. (1990). Pregermination treatment and stratification of silverberry seed. Tree Plant. Notes 41(1), 24-25.
Table 10.39 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Elaeagnus commutata Bernh. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 29 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.