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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Cornaceae
Family Common Name: Dogwood family
Scientific Name: Cornus sericea L. sericea L.
Common Synonym: Cornus stolonifera Michx.
Common Name: Red stem dogwood
Species Code: CORSER
Ecotype: Aspen Forest, Saint Mary, 1250 m elev. Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT.
General Distribution: C. sericea ssp. sericea occurs from Alaska to Newfoundland, south through the Rockies to Mexico; also south through the Cascades and Sierras to southern California and Nevada; further east in Missouri and Pennsylvania. It is found in mixed, open coniferous and aspen forests, riparian zones, wetlands, flood plains, and is invasive of wet meadows. 
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 3 L (1 gal) containers
Time To Grow: 1 Years
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container cutting
Height: 30 cm
Caliper: .5 to 1 cm
Root System: firm plug in 3L (1 gallon) containers.
Propagule Collection: Vegetative Propagation Method: Pre-Rooting or Direct Sticking
Type of Cutting: Spring hardwood and summer softwood stem cuttings.
Hardwood cuttings are collected in April andearly May before budbreak.
Softwood cuttings are collected in June and July before or after flowering.
Cuttings are collected from healthy field plants. Cuttings average 20 to 30 cm in length and .5 to 1 cm in caliper.
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept moist and under refrigeration prior to pre treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Cutting Treatments: Cuttings were cut into 20 to 30 cm lengths, with the base recut and 1/3 of leaves or buds removed. Cuttings were placed in a 2 minute fungicide bath to remove surface pathogens.
Softwood cuttings were treated with 2000 ppm liquid Quick Dip IBA, and stuck in an intermittent mist bed with at least 2 nodes below the surface of the rooting medium.

Hardwood cuttings were treated with 2,000 ppm liquid IBA and directly stuck into 3L (1 gallon) containers filled with medium.
Rooting %: 80 to 95% in 4 to 6 weeks for Softwood (Pre-Rooting)Cuttings.

Rooting %: 65 to 88% in 8 weeks for Hardwood (Direct Sticking)Cuttings.
High rooting percentages are easily obtained with both softwood and hardwood cuttings treated with 2000 ppm IBA rooting hormone.

This species roots so readily that dormant hardwood cuttings (direct sticking in containers) with no IBA treatment had a rooting percent range of 65 to 80%. There are latent root initials present in the stems.

Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

The outdoor mistbed has automatic intermittent mist that is applied at 6 second intervals every 6 minutes. Too frequent misting will result in leaf and stem rot. Bottom heat is maintained at 21C with heating cables buried 12 cm beneath rooting medium. Rooting medium is 50% perlite and 50% sand. Mistbed is covered with shadecloth during rooting. After cuttings have rooted, they are moved to the shadehouse for 4 weeks. Later, they are moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery.
Establishment Phase: Time to Transplant: 8 weeks.
Softwoood cuttings that were prerooted were lifted out of mistbed after adequete root systems were formed.
Roots generate from the nodes below the surface of the rooting medium.
Length of Establishment Phase: 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After cuttings were lifted from the mistbed, they were potted into 3L containers.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 5 grams of Osmocote and 2 grams of Micromax per container.
Cuttings were irrigated after potting and placed in the shadehouse for 4 weeks. After establishment in the shadehouse, plants were moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 1 year from cuttings in 3L (1 gallon) containers.
Harvest Date: June or September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Outplanting Survival at 4 years: 81%

Outplanting Site: Lake McDonald, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or fall
Outplanting Survival at 5 years: 86%

Other Comments: This species is tolerant of excessively cold temperatures; water freezes extra cellularly in the tissues. Thus, this species can be overwintered in containers with minimal protection.
C. sericea is a early to mid seral species which needs moderate to full sun and is not found under closed forest canopies.It is widely utilized for restoration in a variety of habitats.
Birds feed on the fruits in summer and the twigs are an important winter browse for deer and elk.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

1996 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J., Lamb, B., and Funk, T.,unpublished.

1998 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J. and Kimball, S,unpublished.

Citation:
Wick, Dale; Evans, Jeff.; Corey, Susan.; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Cornus sericea L. sericea L. plants (3 L (1 gal) containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Cornaceae
Family Common Name: Dogwood family
Scientific Name: Cornus sericea L. sericea L.
Common Synonym: Cornus stolonifera Michx.
Common Name: Red stem dogwood
Species Code: CORSER
Ecotype: Riparian zone, Camas road, Glacier National Park, Flathead County, MT., 1000m elevation.
General Distribution: C. sericea ssp. sericea occurs from Alaska to Newfoundland, south through the Rocky Mountains to Mexico; also south through the Cascades and Sierras to southern California and Nevada; further east in Missouri and Pennsylvania. It is found in mixed, open coniferous and aspen forests, riparian zones, wetlands, flood plains, and is invasive of wet meadows. 
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 3 L ( gal) containers
Time To Grow: 2 Years
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 30 cm
Caliper: 5 mm
Root System: firm plug in 3L (1 gallon) containers.
Propagule Collection: Mature fruits are collected from July to October. Red-oiser dogwood can produce 2 crops of fruit per growing season. The first crop of the season is usually the largest and has the most fruit. Seeds are hand collected in late August and early September when fruit turns blue. Seeds are brown at maturity. Fruits are collected in plastic bags and kept under refrigeration prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned by maceration using a Dyb-Vig seed cleaner and screens.
Seed longevity: up to 20 years at 1 to 3C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physical-physiological dormancy. Seed has a hard endocarp.
Seeds/Kg: 40,700/ kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 80%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are scarified with sulfuric acid for 20 to 30 minutes followed by a neutralization of lime, and a running water rinse for 48 hours to remove acid residue. After rinsing, seeds are placed into a 90 day cold, moist stratification.
Seeds are placed in fine mesh bags and buried in moist peat moss in ventilated containers at 1 to 3C.
Some seedlots may not require acid scarification for acceptable germination rates.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are lightly covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Establishment Phase: Germination is uniform and usually complete in 2 weeks. True leaves appear 2 weeks after germination.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedling growth is rapid following germination. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm weekly. Plants increased in height to 17 centimeters in 10 weeks.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation was gradually reduced in October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 9 months for 172 ml conetainers and 1.5 years for 3L (1 gallon containers.
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Avalanche, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: September
Other Comments: This species is tolerant of excessively cold temperatures. Water freezes extra cellularly in the tissue. Hardened nursery stock can be winter stored with minimal protection.
C. sericea is a early to mid seral species which needs moderate to full sun and is not found under closed forest canopies. It is widely used for restoration in a variety of habitats.
Fruits are an important food source for birds and small rodents and white tail and mule deer, elk, moose, and snowshow hare browse twigs and leaves. It is a favored winter browse for many species.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale.; Luna, Tara. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Cornus sericea L. sericea L. plants (3 L ( gal) containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Betty Young
Nurseries Sr Manager
Bldg 201, Fort Mason
San Francisco, California 94123
415-331-6917
415-331-7521
byoung@ggnpa.org


Family Scientific Name: Cornaceae
Family Common Name: Dogwood Family
Scientific Name: Cornus sericea L. sericea L.
Common Synonym: Cornus stolonifera Michx.
Common Name: Redstem Dogwood
Species Code: CORSER
Ecotype: Muir Woods, California
General Distribution: C. sericea ssp. sericea is a circumboral species found throughout North America, Europe and Asia in moist woods and riparian areas.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: Deepot 40
Target Specifications: Height: N/A
Caliper: N/A
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Hardwood cuttings are collected between February 1st and February 28th.
Cutting length is 45 cm (15 inches).
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept moist and cool prior to treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Cuttings are treated with Hormex (1000 ppm IBA) rooting powder and struck in flats containing 2:1 Perlite/Vermiculite.
% Rooting: 95%
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Fully Controlled Greenhouse.
Flats are kept in the greenhouse and watered with an automatic irrigation system until roots are fully developed.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Method: Transplanting Cuttings.
Time to Transplant:60 days.
Cuttings are transplanted to individual containers 2"x10" tubes (Deepot 40) containing standard potting mix of peat moss, fir bark, perlite, and sand. Cuttings are placed in the shadehouse.
References: A California Flora and Supplement, Munz, P., University of California Press, Berkeley and London, 1973.

Citation:
Young, Betty 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Cornus sericea L. sericea L. plants (Deepot 40); , San Francisco, California. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Cornaceae
Family Common Name: Dogwood family
Scientific Name: Cornus sericea L. stolonifera (Michx.) Fosb.
Common Synonym: Cornus stolonifera Michx.
Common Name: Redstem dogwood
Species Code: CORSER
General Distribution: C. sericea ssp. stolonifera is found from Alaska east to Newfoundland and throughout the United States south to Mexico.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 30 days. Germination occurs at 25D/10N C alternating temperature cycle.
References: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol J.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Cornus sericea L. stolonifera (Michx.) Fosb. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Cornaceae
Family Common Name: Dogwood family
Scientific Name: Cornus sericea L. sericea L.
Common Synonym: Cornus stolonifera Michx.
Common Name: Red oiser dogwood
Species Code: CORSER
General Distribution: C. sericea ssp. sericea is a circumboreal species.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are cold stratified for 90 to 120 days and germinate at 30/10 C.
References: Heit, C. E. (1968b). Propagation from seed. Part 15: Fall planting of shrub seeds for successful seedling production. Amer. Nurseryman 128(4), 8-10, 70-80.
In: Baskin, C. and Baskin, J. Table 10.16 Chapter 10. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, 1998. 666 pages.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Cornus sericea L. sericea L. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.