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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Cornaceae
Family Common Name: Dogwood family
Scientific Name: Cornus canadensis L.
Common Name: Bunchberry dogwood
Species Code: CORCAN
Ecotype: Lodgepole pine forest, West Glacier,Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT. 1000m elevation.
General Distribution: C. canadensis occurs from Alaska to Greenland, south to California and New Mexico, east to Minnesota and Pennsylvania, also in Asia. It inhabits the understory of moist, shaded forests.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainer
Time To Grow: 6 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 6 true leaves, 4 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: The drupes are hand collected in late August and early September when they turn orange-red.Seeds are tan at maturity. Fruits are collected in plastic bags are are kept refrigerated prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are extracted from the fruit by maceration using a Dyb-vig and screens.
Seeds/Kg:147,400/kg
Seed longevity is 2 to 4 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 90%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are scarified using H2S04 acid bath for 10 to 30 minutes, followed by a neutralization with lime and rinsed with water for 30 minutes to remove acid residue. Seeds are soaked with water for 48 hours, then placed in a 90 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are covered with medium. There was no appreciable difference in germination percentages between acid scarified seed/ 90 day cold, moist stratification vs. non-scarified seed/5 month cold, moist stratification.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding.Seeds are lightly covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat,perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, %Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Containers are irrigated thoroughly. Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C day and 13 to 18C night. Seedlings are moved from the greenhouse to the shadehouse 4 months after germination.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings germinate uniformly in 10 to 15 days. The first true leaves appear 15 to 20 days following germination.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Once seedlings are established, plants develop rapid shoot and root growth 2 to 4 weeks following germination. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm bi-weekly during the growing season. Plants are rhizomatous and quickly fill containers during the rapid growth stage.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm in early fall. Plants are flushed with clear water prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 6 to 9 months
Harvest Date:September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Seedlings will need some shade for establishment on outplanting sites. This species will spread rhizomatously once established.
Other Comments: C. canadensis is vigorously rhizomatous; plants need to be potted into larger containers or outplanted the first year.
Divisions of rhizomes would be a method of increasing nursery stock if seeds are unavailable.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Second Edition, Deno, Norman, published 1993.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished. Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, National Park Service, Hassell, Wendel, April 1991.

Propagation of Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Rose,R., Chachuluski, E.C., and Haase, Diane, Oregon State University Press,1998.

Citation:
Wick, Dale; Hosokawa, Joy.; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Cornus canadensis L. plants (160 ml conetainer); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Cornaceae
Family Common Name: Dogwood family
Scientific Name: Cornus canadensis L.
Common Name: Bunchberry dogwood
Species Code: CORCAN
General Distribution: C. canadensis is found in moist, forested habitats, from Alaska to Greenland, south to California, New Mexico, New Jersery and Ohio. It is also found in Asia.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 71 to 112 days.
References: Nichols, G. E. (1934). The influence of exposure to winter temperatures upon seed germination in various native American plants. Ecology 15, 364-373.
Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Cornus canadensis L. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Cornaceae
Family Common Name: Dogwood Family
Scientific Name: Cornus canadensis L.
Common Name: Bunchberry/Dwarf cornel
Species Code: COCA13
General Distribution: Coniferous and mixed woods and swamps (esp. cedar); jack pine plains (except the driest sites) not often in strictly deciduous woods (except for young aspen-birch stands). Found in moist acid woods in partial to full shade. Showy, white, terminal flowers bloom in the spring. Small plants to 4" in height. Spreads via woody rhizomes.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Flowers from April to June. Seed is a cyme of small red berries. Seed is harvested from August to September.
Propagule Processing: Remove the pulp as soon as possible after picking by stripping off the pulp by hand or with a blender using water or rubbing the berry on a seive and floating off the pulp. Dry seeds for 1 week. Once the seeds have dried begin scarification.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Scarification: Boil enough water to cover the cleaned seeds. Place the seeds in a mug/cup. Add boiling water onto the seeds and leave for one day. Drain. Stratification: Mix the scarified seeds with an equal amount of moist perlite or vermiculite in a sealable plastic bag. Add enough water to the mixture to saturate it. Place sealed bag/container in a room temperature setting for 2-4 months and in a refrigerator or cold garage for 2-3 months. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months for cooling. Container Type: grows best in 24 cell (2"diameter) 14"x8.5"x4" deep flats, and other flats with 2" diameter or more and depths of 4" or more. Sowing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water, mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover the holes in the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper to keep the soil from falling through. Fill cells with damp soil and press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the cell plugs again. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 1 seed in each small cell and 2 seeds in each cell with a diameter greater than 2.5". Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press the seeds into the dirt. Sow year-round due to their unpredictable germination.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From September to the end of Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be kept consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: Grows best on cool, acid rich soil. May need protection from slugs. Excellent groundcover. Germination spotty. Forage species for wildlife.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Cornus canadensis L. plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.