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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Caprifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Honeysuckle family
Scientific Name: Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake laevigatus (Fern) Blake
Common Name: Common Snowberry
Species Code: SYMALB
Ecotype: Lodgepole pine forest, West Glacier, 1000m elev., Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.
General Distribution: S. albus is found from Alaska east across Canada to Quebec, south to California, Nevada, and Utah, and south through the Rocky Mountains to Colorado. It is also found east through the northern Midwestern into New England states.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 3L containers
Time To Grow: 18 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 30 cm
Caliper: 8 mm
Root System: firm plug in 3L (1 gallon) container.
Propagule Collection: Vegetative Propagation Method: Pre-Rooting
Type of Cutting: Hardwood and softwood stem cuttings.
Hardwood cuttings are collected late March to April.
Softwood cuttings are collected May to late June.
Cuttings must be collected from healthy donor field plants.
Stem tip cuttings average 15 cm in length and 5 mm in caliper.
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept under refrigeration and moist prior to pre treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Cuttings were re-cut at the base and terminal buds and 1/3 of basal leaves or buds were removed. Cuttings are dipped into a fungicide bath to remove surface pathogens.
Cuttings were treated liquid IBA (5 second quick-dip)and stuck into rooting medium with at least 2 nodes below the surface.
Hardwood cuttings are treated with 2000 ppm liquid IBA (5 second quick-dip).
Softwood cuttings are treated with 8000 ppm liquid IBA (5 second quick-dip).
Hardwood cuttings treated with 2000 ppm IBA average 50 to 71% rooting in 4 to 5 weeks.
Softwood cuttings treated with 8000 ppm IBA average 91 to 98% rooting in 4 weeks.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

The outdoor mistbed has automatic intermittent mist that is applied at 6 second intervals every 6 minutes. Too frequent misting will result in leaf and stem rot.
Bottom heat is maintained at 21C with heating cables buried 12 cm beneath rooting medium. Rooting medium is 50% perlite and 50% sand.
Mistbed is covered with shadecloth during rooting.
Establishment Phase: Time to Transplant: 5 weeks from mistbed. Cuttings generate roots at the nodes.
Length of Establishment Phase: 5 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After cuttings have well developed root systems, they are lifted from mistbed and transplanted into 3L (1 gallon) containers.
Growing medium used is 70% is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 30% sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer 12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 5 grams of Osmocote and 2.0 grams of Micromax per container. Cuttings are also fertilized weekly with 13-13-13 liquid NPK at 100 ppm.
Potted cuttings are placed in shadehouse for 4 weeks and are then moved to full sun exposure for the remainder of the growing season. It is important to obtain as much root growth as possible prior to overwinter storage.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. One final irrigation is applied prior to overwintering.
Length of Hardening Phase: 6 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 18 months from cuttings in 3L (1 gallon) containers.
Harvest Date: Fall
Storage Conditions: Cuttings require additional protection by placing them in an unheated greenhouse to promote additional root growth in late fall and to protect stems from breakage from heavy snowload.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Ouplanting Site:Lake McDonald and Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Outplanting Survival at 5 Years at Lake McDonald: 100%
Outplanting Survival at Saint Mary at 4 Years: 64%
Other Comments: Common snowberry is suseptible to powdery mildew during summer months. Full sun exposure and good air circulation help to control the problem after cuttings have become established in containers.
Snowberry is widely used for restoring riparian areas and in mineland reclamation.
The fruits are an important food source for grouse, quail, partridge and other birds.
There are 2 botanical varieties: albus, and laevigatus.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation: From Seed to Tissue Culture, Dirr and Heuser, Varsity Press, 1987.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

1996 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J., Lamb, B., and Funk, T., unpublished.

1998 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J. and Kimball, S., unpublished.

Citation:
Potter, Rachel; Lapp, Joyce.; Wick, Dale.; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff.; Hosokawa, Joy.; Corey, Susan. 2008. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake laevigatus (Fern) Blake plants (3L containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Betty Young
Nurseries Sr Manager
Bldg 201, Fort Mason
San Francisco, California 94123
415-331-6917
415-331-7521
byoung@ggnpa.org


Family Scientific Name: Caprifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Honeysuckle Family
Scientific Name: Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake laevigatus (Fern) Blake
Common Synonym: Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake laevigatus
Common Name: Common Snowberry
Species Code: SYMALB
Ecotype: Marin County, California
General Distribution: S. albus var. laevigatus is found below 4,000 feet elevation, from Monterey County and the northern Sierras, California north to Alaska and east to Montana.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: Deepot 40
Target Specifications: Height: N/A
Caliper: N/A
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected between September 15th and February 1st.
Mature fruitsare white. There are 2 seeds per fruit.
Seed is white to light tan at maturity.
Propagule Processing: Seed Cleaning:Mash the berries through a sieve and wash to remove pulp.
Storage Conditions: Seeds are kept dry and stored in a refrigerator.
Seeds/gram: 150
Pre-Planting Treatments: Soak seeds overnight in fresh water. Place in a equal amount of moist vermiculite in a plastic freezer bag. Stratify for 60 days in the dark at room temperature follwed by a 180 day cold moist stratification in the refrigerator. Start checking for germination after 120 days.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Fully Controlled Greenhouse.
Sowing Method: Transplanting Germinants.
8 grams of seeds are sown per flat containing Sunshine Mix #4 Aggregate Plus (peat moss, perlite, major and minor nutrients, gypsum, and dolomitic lime).
Seeds are covered with media.
Flats are watered in with an automatic mist and irrigation system.
Seeds are sown on June 1st.
% Germination: 75%
Establishment Phase: Seeds germinate 240 days after sowing.
Seedlings are transplanted after germination to individual containers 2"x10" tubes (Deepot 40) containing standard potting mix of peat moss, fir bark, perlite, and sand.
Transplant Survival averages 75%.
Other Comments: This species is easily propagated by cuttings and is the preferred method since seeds require many months of stratification.
References: A California Flora and Supplement, Munz, P., University of California Press, Berkeley and London, 1973.

Citation:
Young, Betty 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake laevigatus (Fern) Blake plants (Deepot 40); , San Francisco, California. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Betty Young
Nurseries Sr Manager
Bldg 201, Fort Mason
San Francisco, California 94123
415-331-6917
415-331-7521
byoung@ggnpa.org


Family Scientific Name: Caprifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Honeysuckle Family
Scientific Name: Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake laevigatus (Fern.) Blake
Common Synonym: Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake laevigatus
Common Name: Common Snowberry
Species Code: SYMALB
Ecotype: Marin county, California
General Distribution: S. albus var. laevihgatus is found from Alaska to Nova Scotia south to California, Colorado, Nebraska and Vermont.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: Deepot 40
Target Specifications: Height: N/A
Caliper: N/A
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Hardwood cuttings are collected between November 1st and January 15th.
Cutting diameter is 0.5 inches.
Cutting length is 10 inches including at least 5 nodes.
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept moist and cool prior to treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Cuttings are dipped in a mild bleach solution for 30 seconds.
Cuttings are treated with Hormex (3000 ppm IBA) rooting powder and struck in flats containing 3:1 perlite/vermiculite.
50 Cuttings are struck 2.5 inches deep per flat.
% Rooting: 85%
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Fully Controlled Greenhouse.
Flats are kept in the greenhouse and watered with an automatic irrigation system until roots are fully developed.
Establishment Phase: Planting Method: Transplanting Cuttings.
Time to Transplant: 35 days.
Cuttings are transplanted to individual containers 2"x10" tubes (Deepot 40) containing standard potting mix of peat moss, fir bark, perlite, and sand. Cuttings are placed in the shadehouse.
Transplant Survival averages 75%.
References: A California Flora and Supplement, Munz, P., University of California Press, Berkeley and London, 1973.

Citation:
Young, Betty 2001. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake laevigatus (Fern.) Blake plants (Deepot 40); , San Francisco, California. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Caprifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Honeysuckle family
Scientific Name: Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake
Common Name: Common Snowberry
Species Code: SYMALB
General Distribution: S. albus is found throughout Canada and the United States in moist to dry thickets and woods.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit morpho-physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 180 days. Germination occurs at 30D/20N C alternating temperature cycle.
References: Evans, K. E. (1974). Symphoricarpos Duham. Snowberry. Pp. 787-789. In: C. S. Schopmeyer (Tech. Cord.). Seeds of woody plants in the United States. USDA. Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook No. 450.
Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Caprifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Honeysuckle family
Scientific Name: Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake albus
Common Synonym: Symphoricarpos racemosus Michx.
Common Name: Common snowberry
Species Code: SYMALB
General Distribution: S. albus var. albus is found within temperate deciduous forests of North America.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit morpho-physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are warm and cold stratified for 180 days and germinate at 5 C.
References: Flemion, F. (1934). Physiological and chemical changes preceding and during the after-ripening of Symphoricarpos racemosus seeds. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 6, 91-102.
In: Baskin, C. and Baskin, J. Table 10.16 Chapter 10. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, 1998. 666 pages.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake albus plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.