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Protocol Information

Morris J. Houck, Jr.
Natural Resources Conservation Service- James E. "Bud" Smith Plant Materials Center
3776 Farm Road 1292
Knox City, Texas 79529-2514
(940) 658-3922
(940) 658-3047

Family Scientific Name: Fagaceae
Family Common Name: Beech Family
Scientific Name: Quercus bicolor Willd.
Common Name: Swamp-White oak
Species Code: QUBI
Ecotype: Travertine Island Area
General Distribution: Bottomlands, stream-margins and swamps, south Maine and south Que. to south Minnesota, and Nebraska, south to south New England, Long Island, New York; Deleware, Maryland, north West Virginia, upland to Georgia, and Kentucky, Arkansas, and Oklahoma.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling.
Height: 3 ft.
Caliper: N/A.
Root System: Long taproot.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Sulphur, Oklahoma by Rudy G. Esquivel in 11/1999.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Collect the acorns by hand or flailing it from tree as soon as acorns can be removed from caps—avoid collecting acorns that have been on the ground for several weeks.
Seeds/Kg: N/A.
Germination: estimated 80%.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Acorns can be planted immediately after collection, since acorns of the white group have little or no dormancy, and will germinate almost immediately after falling.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse and lath house for planting and growing.
Seed Propagation Method: Seed acorns in pots deep enough to accommodate taproot or in flats to start off several seedlings, before transplanting into individual pots. Do not let acorns dry.
Container Type and Volume: 3 gallons.
Growing Media: Sunshine Mix #1 or #3.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Fall.
% Emergence and Date: N/A.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Hand sowing.
Establishment Phase: Acorns in potting soil or in the field must be kept moist before and during germination.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Root development occurs rapidly following germination.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Potted plants from the greenhouse are moved to the lath house for several weeks, before transplanting in spring or fall.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Fall.
Total Time To Harvest: fall.
Storage Conditions: Low seed storage potential.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Sulphur, Oklahoma.
Outplanting Date: Transplant in early spring or fall.
References: Manual of Botany, 544; NRCS James E. ‘Bud’ Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas, Plant Collection Information, ECS-580.

Esquivel, Rudy G. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Quercus bicolor Willd. plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service- James E. "Bud" Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.