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Protocol Information

Morris J. Houck, Jr.
Natural Resources Conservation Service- James E. "Bud" Smith Plant Materials Center
3776 Farm Road 1292
Knox City, Texas 79529-2514
(940) 658-3922
(940) 658-3047
mhouck@tx.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Ebenaceae
Family Common Name: Ebony Family
Scientific Name: Diospyros virginiana L.
Common Name: Eastern persimmon
Species Code: DIVI5
Ecotype: Buckhorn and Upper Guy Sandy Area.
General Distribution: In woods, old fields and open thickets in east Texas to Florida.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling.
Height: 3 ft.
Caliper: N/A.
Root System: Long taproot.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Sulphur, Oklahoma by Rudy G. Esquivel on 10/25/1995.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Fruits collected by hand or flailing it from tree as soon as fruits ripen and run through a macerator to remove the fruit.
Seeds/Kg: N/A.
Germination: 100%.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Stratify seeds in damp sphagnum peat moss for three or four months in 36º to 40º Fahrenheit refrigerator, before planting.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Refrigerator, greenhouse and lath house for stratifying, planting and growing.
Seed Propagation Method: Seed in pots or flats, after stratification process.
Container Type and Volume: 3 gallons.
Growing Media: Sunshine Mix #1 or #3.
Establishment Phase: N/A.
Active Growth Phase: N/A.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: N/A.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Sulphur, Oklahoma.
Outplanting Date: Transplant in early spring or fall.
References: How To Grow Native Plants of Texas and the Southwest, 174-175; Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States, 373-375; NRCS James E. ‘Bud’ Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas, Plant Collection Information, ECS-580.

Citation:
Esquivel, Rudy G. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Diospyros virginiana L. plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service- James E. "Bud" Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Ebenaceae
Family Common Name: Ebony Family
Scientific Name: Diospyros virginiana
Common Name: Persimmon
Species Code: DIOVIR
Ecotype: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Shenandoah National Park
General Distribution: Southeastern Connecticut and southern New York to Florida, west to Iowa, Kansas and Texas. Found in well drained or dry soil.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Plug + (container-field grown hybrids)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Bareroot and container plants.
Height: 2 year old bareroot up to 36 inches; 2 gallon container plants (grown an additional 2-3 years) up to 72 inches.
Root System: Bareroot plants have a somewhat thick deep taproot; it is important to set a seedling harvester deep enough so as not to slice off part of the main root system. Spin Out copper hydroxide spray is used on the inside of containers to prevent the roots from circling or from growing outside of the containers into the ground.
Propagule Collection: Collected at Cumberland Gap National Historical Park by R. Caldwell on 12/21/90; by J. Englert on 10/24/94, 9/20/95 and 10/3-4/96, by J. Copeland on 11/12/97 and 11/24/98; Shenandoah National Park by J. Englert on 11/15/93; by J. Kujawski on 10/28/96.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seeds are cleaned by separating fleshy fruit out in a Dybvig separator.
Seeds/Kg: 3,600 seeds/kg average.
Germination: Approximately 23%.
Purity: Average purity is 98%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None; we sow seeds directly in the ground after they have been cleaned. Winter temperatures and moisture act as a natural stratification treatment.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Outdoor nursery beds.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand-sown.
Container Type and Volume: Some bareroot seedlings are transplanted into 1- and 2-gallon containers after harvest.
Growing Media: In containers, plants are grown in woody mix (3.8 cu ft. bale Sunshine #1, 4 cu. ft. of pine bark mulch, 20 oz. Nutricote and approximately 20 oz. endo-mycorrhizae).
Seed storage: Seeds are generally planted in the fall after cleaning, but if stored, are kept in plastic bottles or paper envelopes in a seed cooler at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: Persimmon may have delayed germination because of the hard seed coat; this restriction can be removed by moist, cold stratification (USDA, 1974).
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: November-December.
% Emergence and Date: Seedlings generally emerge the spring after fall sowing (USDA [1974] notes delayed germination can occur 2 or 3 years after sowing).
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seeds are imbibed in water, dusted with a fungicide and hand sown into rows (rows are 5 to 6 inches apart, seeds are sown about 1 inch apart within rows). Endomycorrhizae are sprinkled over the seed before covering with about 1 inch of soil. The beds are then mulched with aged sawdust.
Establishment Phase: Sawdust mulch is scraped back in spring prior to seedling emergence. Newly emerged seedlings are monitored closely for irrigation needs. Young seedlings are shaded as soon as they emerge with poly screening at 30%. Shade cloth remains over seedlings until mid-August.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Because National Plant Materials Center soil is a nutrient poor sandy loam, seedlings are fertilized from mid-April with a granular 10-10-10 once a week through early June. From mid-June through late July, the 10-10-10 is alternated with a granular urea every other week. From late July through late August the seedlings are fertilized with 10-10-10 every two weeks. Overhead irrigation is used after every fertilization. The rate of water applied is determined by soil moisture prior to irrigation.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: During mid- to late summer, fertilization is cut back to twice monthly. Beginning in September, irrigation is only used in a severe droughty situation.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: Bareroot plants are generally harvested 2 years after sowing; in some cases where we’ve seen good growth and want to end up with container plant material, we will harvest after 1 year.
Harvest Date: Dormant bareroot plants are harvested in early to mid-December.
Storage Conditions: Bareroot plants are bundled into groups of 25 (or whatever is manageable), and long roots are trimmed. Root trimmings are saved for vegetative propagation use. Bundles are placed into plastic bins; roots are covered with sawdust. Bins are placed into a cold storage room (40ºF) and watered as needed during the winter. Gallon size and larger container plants are stored outside. Containers are laid on their side on weed barrier fabric, and covered with 2 layers of a microfoam insulating blanket. The blanket is secured over plants by threading a rope over the blanket between rebar anchors on either side of a block of plants.
Seed storage: Seeds are generally planted in the fall after cleaning, but if stored, are kept in plastic bottles or paper envelopes in a seed cooler at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: Persimmon may have delayed germination because of the hard seed coat; this restriction can be removed by moist, cold stratification (USDA, 1974).
Length of Storage: Storage Duration: December to March.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Shenandoah National Park.
Outplanting Date: Spring.
References: Brown and Brown. 1992. Woody Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc.

Gleason, H and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd edition. New York Bot. Garden.

USDA, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. USDA, Ag. Handbook 450.

USDA NRCS National Plant Materials Center. Woody bed and container plant records. Unpublished data.

Citation:
Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of plug + transplants of Diospyros virginiana plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Mike Materne
Plant Materials Specialists
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Baton Rouge National Plant Data Center
P.O. Box 16030, University Station
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70893
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Ebenaceae
Family Common Name: Ebony
Scientific Name: Diospyros virginiana
Common Name: Persimmon
General Distribution: Usually dry deciduous forest, pinelands, and old fields; however, has a wide range of sites varying in moisture and fertility conditions (Godfrey 1988).
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Collected in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Propagule Processing: EASE OF COLLECTION: Readily accessible.
METHOD OF CLEANING: Seeds are easily removed by running water through a macerator and allowing the pulp to float away, or by rubbing and washing the pulp through 1/4-inch mesh hardware cloth (ibid.).
TYPE OF MATERIAL COLLECTED FOR PROPAGATION: Seed and seedlings.
PROPAGATION METHOD: Seed and seedlings.
NUMBER OF SEEDS PER POUND: 1,200 (USDA 1974).
PERCENT GERMINATION: 96% (ibid.).
Pre-Planting Treatments: PRETREATMENT USED: Cold stratification at 40ºF for 90 days.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

METHOD OF GROWING: Container.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: SEED MATURITY DATE: Flowers: March-June. Fruits: September - November.
UNUSUAL OR UNIQUE HARVESTING OR DIGGING REQUIREMENTS: Seedlings have strong taproots and should be field planted at the end of the first season.
STORAGE REQUIREMENTS: Cleaned seed should be spread out to dry for a day or two. Prolonged storage requires thorough drying (ibid.).
ESTIMATED PROPAGULE STORAGE POTENTIAL: Unknown; however, seeds stored for prolonged periods should be stored in sealed, dry containers at 41ºF (ibid.).
References: Godfrey, R.K. 1988. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Northern Florida and Adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1974.

Citation:
Fine, Gary 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Diospyros virginiana seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Baton Rouge National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.