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Protocol Information

Morris J. Houck, Jr.
Natural Resources Conservation Service- James E. "Bud" Smith Plant Materials Center
3776 Farm Road 1292
Knox City, Texas 79529-2514
(940) 658-3922
(940) 658-3047
mhouck@tx.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Leguminosae
Family Common Name: Legume Family
Scientific Name: Cercis canadensis L.
Common Name: Eastern redbud
Species Code: CECA4
Ecotype: Veterans Lake Dam
General Distribution: Eastern United States: Connecticut to Iowa southward to Texas and Florida. Found on abandoned farmlands, cutover woodlands, or in forest understories.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling.
Height: 3 ft.
Caliper: N/A.
Root System: Long taproot.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Sulphur, Oklahoma by Morris Houck, James Alderson and Gary Bates in 10/1991.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Pods collected by hand and run through hammer mill at the NRCS PMC.
Seeds/Kg: N/A.
Germination: N/A.
Purity: N/A.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Sulfuric acid is added to seeds for a predetermined period. After treatment, the seeds should be washed thoroughly and then stored in a refrigerator with moist sphagnum peat moss until spring planting or sowed immediately (without pretreatment) after collection in the fall in well-prepared seed beds.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: In the greenhouse and then set in the lath house for growing and hardening-off.
Container Type and Volume: 1 gallon.
Growing Media: Sunshine Mix #1 or #3.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Seeds sown in late fall or early spring.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand seeding in containers or flats.
Emergence and Date: N/A.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Direct seeding by hand.
Establishment Phase: N/A.
Active Growth Phase: N/A.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Late fall.
Total Time To Harvest: September.
Storage Conditions: N/A.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Sulphur, Oklahoma.
Outplanting Date: Transplant in early spring or fall.
References: Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States, 305-308; NRCS James E. ‘Bud’ Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas, Plant Collection Information PM-580.

Citation:
Esquivel, Rudy G. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Cercis canadensis L. plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service- James E. "Bud" Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 29 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Caesalpiniaceae
Family Common Name: Caesalpinia Family
Scientific Name: Cercis canadensis
Common Name: Redbud
Species Code: CERCAN
Ecotype: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Shenandoah National Park, George Washington Memorial Parkway
General Distribution: Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Iowa, Nebraska, south to Florida and Mexico. Found in rich, moist soil, partial shade.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Plug + (container-field grown hybrids)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Bareroot and container seedlings.
Height: Up to 24 inches for bareroot seedlings (after 2 years), up to 60 inches for container plants (after an additional 2-3 years in pots).
Root System: Roots on container plants are fibrous, should form a full rootball when plant is pulled from container.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park by National Park Service staff on 8/24/94 - 10/18/94, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park by J. Englert on 9/19/95, J. Copeland on 10/7/96-10/15/96, 10/3/97, 10/26/98, 9/7/99-9/10/99 and 9/18/00-10/30/00; Shenandoah National Park by J. Englert on 9/92, 10/92 and 10/5/93; by G./D. Meyer on 8/25/94-11/3/94, by J. White on 10/4/95, by J. Kujawski on 9/24/96-10/28/96; George Washington Memorial Parkway by G. Meyer on 10/14/94, by J. Kujawski on 10/9/96-11/5/96.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed pods are run through a hammermill to break them up into smaller pieces and release seeds. Seeds and pod sections are then put into a 2-screen clipper to separate seeds from chaff.
Seeds/Kg: Approximately 52,400.
Germination: Germination has been variable but fairly low, ranging from less than 1% to about 12 or 13%. See comments about seed quality.
Purity: 79% on average, although some lots are very poor because of insect damage.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: We simply fall plant seeds to overcome barriers to germination, but scarification and chilling are necessary for seeds not fall sown (USDA, 1974).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Outdoor nursery beds.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand-sown seeds.
Container Type and Volume: Some bareroot seedlings are transplanted into 1-, 2-, then 3-gallon containers after harvest.
Growing Media: In containers, plants are grown in woody mix (3.8 cu ft. bale Sunshine #1, 4 cu. ft. of pine bark mulch, 20 oz. Nutricote and approximately 20 oz. endo-mycorrhizae).
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: November-December.
% Emergence and Date: Seedlings emerge the spring after fall sowing.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seeds are dusted with fungicide and hand sown into rows (rows are 5 to 6 inches apart, seeds are sown just about touching each other in rows, because of low germination expectations). Endomycorrhizae are sprinkled over the seed before covering with about 3/4 inch of soil. The beds are then mulched with aged sawdust.
Establishment Phase:Rapid Growth Phase: Because National Plant Materials Center soil is a nutrient poor sandy loam, seedlings are fertilized from mid-April with a granular 10-10-10 once a week through early June. From mid-June through late July, the 10-10-10 is alternated with a granular urea every other week. From late July through late August the seedlings are fertilized with 10-10-10 every two weeks. Overhead irrigation is used after every fertilization. The rate of water applied is determined by soil moisture prior to irrigation. Sawdust mulch is scraped back in spring prior to seedling emergence. Newly emerged seedlings are monitored closely for irrigation needs. Young seedlings are shaded as soon as they emerge with poly screening at 30%. Shade cloth remains over seedlings until mid-August.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Because National Plant Materials Center soil is a nutrient poor sandy loam, seedlings are fertilized from mid-April with a granular 10-10-10 once a week through early June. From mid-June through late July, the 10-10-10 is alternated with a granular urea every other week. From late July through late August the seedlings are fertilized with 10-10-10 every two weeks. Overhead irrigation is used after every fertilization. The rate of water applied is determined by soil moisture prior to irrigation.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: During mid- to late summer, fertilization is cut back to twice monthly. Beginning in September, irrigation is only used in a severe droughty situation.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: Bareroot plants are generally harvested 2 years after sowing; in some cases where we’ve seen good growth and want to end up with container plant material, we will harvest after 1 year.
Harvest Date: Dormant bareroot plants are harvested in early to mid-December.
Storage Conditions: Bareroot plants are bundled into groups of 25 (or whatever is manageable), and long roots are trimmed. Root trimmings are saved for vegetative propagation use. Bundles are placed into plastic bins; roots are covered with sawdust. Bins are placed into a cold storage room (40ºF) and watered as needed during the winter. Gallon size and larger container plants are stored outside. Containers are laid on their side on weed barrier fabric, and covered with 2 layers of a microfoam insulating blanket. The blanket is secured over plants by threading a rope over the blanket between rebar anchors on either side of a block of plants.
Seed storage: Seeds are stored dry in paper envelopes, cloth bags, or plastic bottles in a seed cooler maintained at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: Seeds have both hard seedcoats and embryo dormancy to overcome before they will germinate (USDA, 1974).
Length of Storage: Storage Duration: December to March.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Shenandoah National Park, George Washington Memorial Parkway.
Outplanting Date: Spring.
Other Comments: We have noticed that many redbud seeds have been attacked by insects, evidenced by tiny holes visible in the seeds after they have been cleaned from the pods. Germination has been variable and quite low in seed lots with these holes.
References: Brown and Brown. 1992. Woody Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc.

Gleason, H and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd edition. New York Bot. Garden.

USDA, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. USDA, Ag. Handbook 450.

USDA NRCS National Plant Materials Center. Woody bed and container plant records. Unpublished data.

Citation:
Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of plug + transplants of Cercis canadensis plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 29 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Fabaceae
Family Common Name: Pea family
Scientific Name: Cercis canadensis L.
Common Name: Eastern redbud
Species Code: CERCAN
General Distribution: C. canadensis is found within temperate deciduous forests of eastern North America.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physical and physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are scarified and cold stratified for 35 to 56 days and germinate at 21 C.
References: Afanasiev, M. (1944). A study of dormancy and germination of seeds of Cercis canadensis. J. Agric. Res. 69, 405-419.
In: Baskin, C. and Baskin, J. Table 10.15 Chapter 10. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, 1998. 666 pages.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Cercis canadensis L. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 29 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.