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Protocol Information

Janet M Grabowski
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Coffeeville/Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials Center
2533 County Road 65
Coffeeville, Mississippi 38922-2652
(601) 675-2588
(601) 675-2369
jgrabowski@ms.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Cyperaceae
Family Common Name: Sedge Family
Scientific Name: Scirpus cyperinus L. Kunth
Common Name: Woolgrass
Species Code: SCICYP
Ecotype: Mississippi
General Distribution: S. cyperinus is found in low wet ground from Newfoundland to Florida,west across the eastern and southern United States to Minnesota, Missouri, Texas and across southern Canada to southeastern British Columbia.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 1+0 container
Time To Grow: 6 Months
Target Specifications: Height: n/a
Caliper: n/a
Root System: n/a
Propagule Collection: I harvest woolgrass Scirpus cyperinus (Leaf River Source) seeds in mid to late September (when fully mature and before any significant shattering occurs) by pulling or cutting the fruit clusters from the stem.
Propagule Processing: I loosen seeds from the fruit clusters using a brush machine (Westrup a/s Slagelse, Denmark) and then use a 50 X 50 (0.356 X 0.356 mm openings) wire mesh seed cleaning screen to remove inert matter. I have found that woolgrass can be stored dry in zip-lock-type plastic bags for at least 6 months or moist at cold temperatures for 3 to 4 months without affecting germination. I have achieved germination rates of 40% to 60%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds can be stored moist in zip-lock-type bags containing sphagnum peat moss at 5.5 °C (42 °F) or in cold water (5.5 °C [42 °F]).The cool temperatures and moist conditions serve as a stratification process.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

I use a 3:1 (v:v) sphagnum peat moss:sand growing medium amended with commercially recommended quantities of pelletized slow-release fertilizer (for example, 1.8 to 3.6 kg/m3 [3 to 6 lb/yd3] Osmocote 13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 mo release rate at 21 °C [70 °F] or 1.8 to 3.6 kg/m3 [3 to 6 lb/yd3] Sierra 17N:6P2O5:12K2O; 3 to 4 mo release rate at 21 °C [70 °F]; The Scotts Company, Marysville, Ohio), 4.7 to 5.9 kg/m3 (8 to 10 lb/yd3) dolomitic lime, 0.89 kg/m3 (1.5 lb/yd3) Micromax micronutrient fertilizer (The Scotts Company, Marysville, Ohio) and a wetting agent (I use 0.59 kg/m3 [1 lb/yd3] 2000 G AquaGro [Aquatrols, Cherry Hill, New Jersey], which is no longer marketed). I pasteurize the sand in an electric soil sterilizer for 30 min at 82 °C (180 °F) to reduce weed problems.
Establishment Phase: Germination takes about 3 wk and is highest when the medium is saturated on a commercial ebb and flow greenhouse bench (Midwest Trading, Denmark) with water maintained 0.6 to 1.2 cm (0.25 to 0.5 in) deep. Greenhouse temperatures range from 13 to 38 °C (55 to 100 °F) during the germination period.
Active Growth Phase: Subsequent seedling growth is best with a moist medium, maintained by regularly watering containers situated on normal greenhouse benches.

This agrees with my observations that wild plants require fairly wet conditions for germination, but plants become increasingly tolerant of drying substrates as they grow, with mature plants possessing a higher level of drought tolerance than would be anticipated for a wetland plant.

References: Observations on seed propagation of 5 Mississippi wetland species, Grabowski, J., Native Plants Journal, Spring 2001.

USDA NRCS. 1999. The PLANTS database, Version 3.0. URL: http://plants.usda.gov/plants (accessed 29 Sep 2000). Baton Rouge (LA): National Plant Data Center.

Citation:
Grabowski, Janet M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Scirpus cyperinus L. Kunth plants (1+0 container); Natural Resources Conservation Service - Coffeeville/Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials Center, Coffeeville, Mississippi. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 23 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Cyperaceae
Family Common Name: Sedge Family
Scientific Name: Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth
Common Name: Wool grass
Species Code: SCCY
General Distribution: Grows abundantly in wet places such as meadows, shores, marshes, bogs, swamps, and along wet roadsides. Full sun. A bulrush up to 6' tall. Flower inconspicuous.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Flowers August-Sept. Seeds grow in a dense wooly cluster. Seed is collected October-November.
Propagule Processing: Dry seeds for 1 to 2 weeks in open paper bags or open Rubbermaid-style bins, shaking or turning seed heads. Seed is not cleaned. Once seeds have dried begin stratification.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Stratification: Use a Ziploc-style bag or a Rubbermaid-style container to mix an equal amount of seeds with either perlite or vermiculite. Add a small amount of water. (There should be no visible water within the bag or container). Place in a refrigerator or garage (33-42 degrees F) for one month. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months for cooling. Heat for the cold months. Container Type: grows best in 24 cell (2"diameter), 14"x8.5"x4" deep. Wool grass will also grwo successfully in a variety of other plug cell sizes and shapes. Growing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water, mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover the holes in the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper. Fill cells with damp soil and press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs again with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the plug cells again. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 3 seeds in each small cell and about 5 seeds in each large cell. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press the seeds into the dirt. Sow year-round due to variable germination rates.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. greenhouse thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be kept consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: Requires full sun and wet soil. The seeds and rhizomes provide cover and food for wildlife. Colonizes disturbed areas.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 23 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.