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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Betulaceae
Family Common Name: Birch Family
Scientific Name: Betula glandulosa Michx.
Common Synonym: Betula nana L.
Common Name: Bog birch
Species Code: BETGLA
Ecotype: Lake margin, Red Rocks Lake, 1500m elev. Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT.
General Distribution: B. glandulosa occurs from Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana, and south to Colorado, east to Newfoundland and northeastern U.S.
It is found in riparian communities in upland,subalpine and alpine habitats.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainer
Time To Grow: 8 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 20 cm
Caliper: 0.5 cm
Root System: Firm plug in 172 ml conetainer
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in early October when catkins have turn papery and scales begin to dehisce. Seeds are brown at maturity. Branches are flailed over acanvas tarp. Seeds are swept into bags and kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are extracted by tumbling catkins> It is difficult to separate empty seeds from sound seeds.
Seed Storage: 1 year at 3 to 5 C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified non deep physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 1,000,000/ kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 91%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed into a 24 hour water soak followed by a 60 day cold, moist stratification.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method:Direct Seeding. Seeds are surface sown; needs light for germination.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C day and 18C night.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat,perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer 12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Establishment Phase: Germination occurs at 22C. Germination is uniform and is usually complete in 3 weeks. True leaves appear 2 weeks after germination. Seedlings are thinned at this stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings grow at a rapid rate after establishment. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20liquid NPK at 100 ppm during the growing season. Plants average 9 cm in height and 1 cm caliper in 4 months. Plants can be uppotted into 3L (1 gallon) containers 17 weeks after germination, and be root tight in 1.5 years. Three gallon container stock can be produced in 2.5 years.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm in the fall, pots are flushed with clear water, one final irrigation is applied before overwintering.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest:8 months
Harvest Date: June
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Trees in 3L (1 gallon) containers average 40 cm in height with 1.8 cm caliper 16 months following germination. Trees are multi-stemmed.
B. glandulosa intergrades withB. pumila and B. nana where the ranges of this species overlap.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1981.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Seeds of Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, N., Penn State University,1993.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Wick, Dale; Hosokawa, Joy.; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Betula glandulosa Michx. plants (172 ml conetainer); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 August 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225

Family Scientific Name: Betulaceae
Family Common Name: Birch family
Scientific Name: Betula nana L.
Common Name: Dwarf birch
Species Code: BETNAN
General Distribution: B. nana is found throughout the arctic and subarctic regions of the Northern hemisphere; in North America, Europe and Asia.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 14 days. Germination occurs at 24C.
References: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Betula nana L. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 August 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.