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Protocol Information

Joel L. Douglas
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Coffeeville/Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials Center
2533 County Road 65
Coffeeville, Mississippi 38922-2652
(601) 675-2588
(601) 675-2369
jdouglas@ms.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Scientific Name: Rudbeckia hirta L.
Common Name: Blackeyed susan
Species Code: RUHI2
General Distribution: Rudbeckia hirta has a fairly wide distribution from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Manitoba, Colorado and Texas and is commonly found throughout the state of Mississippi. This species prefers a well-drained soil.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Collected near mile marker 118 and 123 on the Natchez Trace Parkway by PMC personnel/July 1992.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Direct combined and cleaned using an air screen cleaner.
Seeds/Kg: 3,750,000.
Germination: In 1992=87%, in 1993=90%, and in 1994=22%.
Purity: In 1992=57%, in 1993=89%, and in 1994=82%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None required. Seeds germinated in both light and darkness (Andersen, 1968).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Field grown.
Container Type and Volume: Seedlings can be grown in the greenhouse, however, this was not normal practice at the PMC. Small seedlings do not transplant well, so direct sowing in cell packs or possibly larger pots is recommended.
Growing Media: Normal greenhouse growing media can be used, however, the mix must be well drained. Seedlings are very susceptible to damping off or physical rot if overwatered (Phillips, 1985).
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: August to October.
Emergence and Date: Seeds normally germinate in September or October (see Total Time To Harvest).
Sowing/Planting Technique: Fields were either closely mowed or burned, disked and cultipacked prior to planting. Observations of seed germination in a burned field that was not disked prior to planting showed that germination was delayed compared to a field planted at the same time that was disked. Apparently the ash residue on the surface of the soil inhibited germination. Seeds did not germinate well in a fluf1~j, clean tilled field. Direct sowing was done with a no-till drill using the legume box. Rice hulls were tested for use as a filler; however, the rice hull mixture did not meter through the seed box openings. The meter openings on the box were set between 3 to 5 mm (1/8 and 3/16 inch). Seed was drilled 6 mm (1/4 inch) deep with the furrows left open. Two broadcast seeding methods were also used. Blackeyed susan seeds were mixed with sand as a filler and broadcast with a field fertilizer spreader. Subsequent plantings at the PMC were done using a smaller fertilizer spreader on an all-terrain vehicle and the sand filler was not required. Planting rates used in production fields were 3.35 to 4.48 kilograms PLS per hectare (3 to 4 pounds per acre).
Establishment Phase: Seeds germinate in the fall and plants overwinter as a rosette.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Plants begin growth in late February to March. Flowering shoots begin to rapidly elongate in April to May.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Mid-July.
Total Time to Harvest: In ideal situations, seeds germinate in the fall and harvest will be approximately 11 months after planting. However, if for some reason seeds do not germinate until the following spring, the phenology of the plants will not be normal. The plants will flower later and will not produce a flush of flowers, so seed harvesting capabilities are limited. When this happens, seeds are left to mature on the plants and the field is mowed to improve stands. Seeds are then harvested in subsequent years.
Seed Storage: Normal cool, dry storage. PMC cooler is maintained at 12.7 C (55 F).
Seed Dormancy: Seeds have no prolonged dormancy (Phillips, 1985).
Storage Duration: Seeds would be classified as having medium longevity (Hartmann and Kester, 1975). Seeds were stored for 3 to 5 years before planting on the Natchez Trace Parkway.
Length of Storage: Storage Duration: 3-5 years.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Natchez Trace Parkway 3X section and others.
Outplanting Date: 3X section planted in 1994, other sections of the Natchez Trace Parkway were planted in 1996.
Other Comments: Yields of 84 to 112 kg per hectare (75 to 100 lbs. per acre) can be expected from good stands. During NPS production the major forms of weed control used were properly timed mowing and applications of Poast (sethoxydim) to control grassy weeds. Cultivation was unsatisfactory because plants did not tolerate soil deposition around the plant crown. Since that time, a new herbicide Plateau (imazapic) has increased weed control options for this species.
References: Andersen, R. N. 1968. Germination and establishment of weeds for experimental purposes. Weed Science Society of America, W. F. Humphrey Press, Inc., Geneva, NY. 236 p.

Hartmann, H.T. and Kester, D.E. 1975. Plant propagation principles and practices. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Engelwood Cliffs, NJ. 662 p.

Phillips, H.R. 1985. Growing and propagating wildflowers. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 330 p.

Citation:
Grabowski, Janet M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Rudbeckia hirta L. plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Coffeeville/Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials Center, Coffeeville, Mississippi. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 23 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Scientific Name: Rudbeckia hirta
Common Name: Black-eyed Susan
Species Code: RUHI2
Ecotype: Colorado, McGraw Ranch
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Seed cleaning technique: Seeds removed from seed heads.
Propagule Processing: Germination: McGraw Ranch high percentage.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed treatments: None.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse, 65-70º F day/55ºF night. Propagated under tent with misters set 8 am-8 pm, with 10 sec/15 min watering intervals. One week after germination, seedlings were moved to mister area without tent.
Germination media: Fafard Germinating Mix (superfine).
Growing media: Fafard Growing Mix 2.
Establishment Phase: Sowing/planting technique: Sown in 36 pk, 3-5 seeds/slot.
Time to germination: 12 days.
Establishment Phase: Germination uniform and rapid.
Time to potting: 1 month.
McGraw Ranch sowed 11/18/98.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Seed storage condition: Seed stored in the greenhouse.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Rudbeckia hirta seeds; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 23 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Compositae
Family Common Name: Aster Family
Scientific Name: Rudbeckia hirta L.
Common Name: Black-eyed susan
Species Code: RUHI2
General Distribution: Full sun to very light shade. Savannas, barrens, openings, and meadows. Only poor soil needed but well drained rich soils produce lush plants. Showy, yellow petals with a dark glossy brown to black eye. Height 1'-3'.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Flowers from June-Sept. Seed is an achene and is harvested August-October. Cut seed heads and shake out additional seed.
Propagule Processing: Dry seeds for 1-2 weeks in open paper bags or open Rubbermaid-style bins, shaking or turning seed heads. Seed is not cleaned. Once seeds have dried, store in sealed Ziploc-style bags until sowing time. Keep in a cool dry place (refrigerator or cold garage) until planted. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Pre-Planting Treatments: None, although some books call for 2 months of moist cold stratification. Our seeds have always grown extremely successfully without any form of treatment.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months for cooling. Container Type: grows best in deep cell plug trays; 100 cell (1.5" diameter), 18"x12"x6.5" deep. Also grows well in 24 cell (2"diameter)14"x8.5"x4" deep flats, and a variety of other flat sizes and shapes. Sowing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover the holes on the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper so that the soil does not fall out. Fill cells with damp soil press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the cells plugs again. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 5 seeds in each 1.5" cell and 7 seeds in each 2" cell. Cover the seed with a thin layer of soil or gently press the seeds into the dirt. Sow seeds in Jan. and continue growing new crops of seeds, as needed, until July.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed, leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: Ideal species for difficult restoration sites (dry,sandy). Very hardy. May exist as a short lived perennial. Works well in open land seed mixes.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Rudbeckia hirta L. plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 23 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.