Untitled Page
About Us
Journal
Propagation Protocol Database
Links
Subscribe to Native Plant Journal
Print View

Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass Family
Scientific Name: Elymus virginicus L.
Common Name: Virginia wildrye
Species Code: ELYVIR
Ecotype: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Kentucky, Poor Valley; National Capital Parks-East, Washington, DC, Oxon Run
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: Container plugs
Time To Grow: 14 Weeks
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container plug.
Height: Approximately 6 inches tall after cutbacks at outplanting.
Root System: Filled plug; plug retains shape when pulled from container.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Cumberland Gap National Historical Park by R. Russell on 10/10/90; National Capital Parks-East by S. Rudy on 11/12/98; USDA-NRCS National Plant Materials Center by D. Dusty on 9/92, 8/25/94, 7/31/95, 8/15/96, and 9/9/97.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: When seed is tan and reaches hard dough stage, it is harvested from a production field by combining. Seed is cleaned using a two-screen clipper.
Seed storage: Estimated to be greater than 4 years if seed is stored dry, in cloth bags or paper envelopes at 40 F and 35% relative humidity.
Seeds/Kg: 117,000 average.
Germination: 92% average (test) % germination in greenhouse varies depending on park, accession and year.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None needed, although seeds germinate more uniformly after a 2-week cold stratification. Germination occurs at moderate temperatures. Seeds do not germinate or grow well in the greenhouse in mid-summer heat.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse; day/night temperature cycle set at 75/68F.
Seed Propagation Method: Direct seeding in plug trays.
Container Type and Volume: Ropak Multipots.
Growing Media: Germination mix over Sunshine #1 with Nutricote slow-release fertilizer.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Early December.
Emergence and Date: x% of seedlings emerge within x days of sowing.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Hand sowing. Seed is lightly covered with germination mix.
Establishment Phase: Planting medium is kept moist during germination by hand watering.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Seedlings develop quickly after germination. They are ready for a cutback after x weeks of growth. Plants are subject to 1-2 cutbacks before they are ready for the field.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Seedlings are not maintained throughout the year. They are started mid-winter for spring outplanting. Seedlings are hardened off by placing plug containers outside the greenhouse in a sheltered area for 2 weeks prior to outplanting.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 14 weeks from seed germination to finished plug.
Harvest Date: Plugs are generally ready for outplanting 14 weeks after they germinate.
Storage Conditions: N/A.
Length of Storage: Storage Duration: N/A.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Sites: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Kentucky; National Capital Parks-East, Washington, DC; USDA-NRCS National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland.
Outplanting Date: Spring or fall.
References: Manual of the Grasses of the United States, Hitchcock, 2nd edition, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.

Manual of Vascular Plants, Gleason and Cronquist, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1963.

National Plant Materials Center propagation records, unpublished.

Citation:
Davis, Kathy M.; Kujawski, Jennifer L. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Elymus virginicus L. plants (Container plugs); Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Gramineae
Family Common Name: Grass Family
Scientific Name: Elymus virginicus L.
Common Name: Virginia wild rye
Species Code: ELV13
General Distribution: Low deciduous or sometimes coniferous woods and thickets, especially along stream banks and floodplains, open marshy shores and meadows. Grass with 6-10 leaves per plant. Up to 1 meter tall.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula land. Flowers approximately June to August. Seed is an achene and is harvested in August.
Propagule Processing: Dry seeds for 1 to 2 weeks in open paper bags or open Rubbermaid-style bins. Seed is not cleaned. Once seeds have dried out begin stratification. Keep in a cool dry place (refrigerator or cold garage) until planted. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Pre-Planting Treatments: Stratification: Use a Ziploc-style bag or a small Rubbermaid-style container to mix an equal amount of seeds with either perlite or vermiculite. Add a small amount of water. (There should be no visible water in the bag or container). Place in a refrigerator or cold garage (33-42 degrees F) for one month. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months to allow for cooling. Heat for the cold months. Container Type: grows best in 24 cell (2"diameter), 14"x8.5"x4" deep. Also grows successfully in a variety of other plug cell sizes and shapes. Growing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water, mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover holes in the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper. Fill cells with damp soil and press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the plug cells again. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 5 seeds in each large cell. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press seeds into the dirt. Sow from January until July as needed. Relatively quick germination with approximately 75% germination. If seeds do not germinate within 2 months of planting, consider reseeding with seeds that were stratified for longer than the time specified.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: Similar in general appearance to Elymus canadensis.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Elymus virginicus L. plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.