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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Berberidaceae
Family Common Name: Barberry family
Scientific Name: Mahonia repens (Lindl.)G. Don
Common Synonym: Berberis repens Lindl.
Common Name: Creeping Oregon Grape
Species Code: MAHREP
Ecotype: Lodgepole Forest, 1000m elev. West Glacier, Gl
General Distribution: M. repens is found from eastern Washington south to northeastern California, east to Alberta, South Dakota, Texas, New Mexico, Utah, and Nevada; in foothills and lower montane forest, from near sea level to 3050 meters elevation. It grows on a variety of soils, including coarse, rocky soils and glacial outwash. Soils range from well to poorly drained.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 490 ml containers
Time To Grow: 18 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 7 cm
Caliper: 9 mm of main stem
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Oregon grape can be propagated by heel, nodal, and tip cuttings. Vegetative regeneration via rhizomes appears to be the most prevalent mode of regeneration follwing fire or other disturbances.

Method: Pre-Rooting.
Type of Cutting: 1. Spring Hardwood tip cuttings with basal wood
2. Summer Softwood tip cuttings with basal wood
Hardwood tip cuttings are collected in April to early May, Softwood tip cuttings are collected from late May to mid June from healthy disease free plants growing on forest margin in full sun exposure.

Propagule Processing: Cuttings were kept moist and refrigerated at 3C prior to pretreatment for 24 hours.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Both hardwood and softwood tip cuttings were cut into 10 to 15 cm lengths, 0.5 to 0.7 cm diameter, with a section of basal wood; 1/3 of leaves removed from the base of stem, and treated with 1000 ppm Domain fungicide rinse for 2 minutes. Cuttings were then treated with 1000 or 2000 ppm liquid IBA rooting hormone. Cuttings were placed in outdoor mistbed with bottom heat maintained at 21C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

The outdoor mistbed has automatic intermittent mist that is applied at 6 second intervals every 6 minutes. Too frequent misting will result in leaf and stem rot. Bottom heat is maintained at 21 C with heating cables 12 cm beneath rooting media. Rooting media is 50% perlite and 50% sand. Mistbed is covered with shadecloth during rooting.
Establishment Phase: Hardwood cuttings with 1000 ppm IBA had 57% to 80% rooting.
Softwood Cuttings with 1000 ppm IBA had 20% to 56% rooting.
Time to Transplant: 5 to 8 weeks in mist bed.
Length of Establishment Phase: 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After cuttings have rooted, they are potted into 490 ml containers using 50% 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 50% sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S ,0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 2 grams of Osmocote and 0.85 gram of Micromax per 490 ml conetainer. Cuttings are grown in the shade house throughout the active growth phase. Care should be given not to overwater rooted cuttings. Allow media to dry to 50% dry weight between irrigation applications.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Cuttings are moved to full sun exposure in early fall and given 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm weekly until mid October. Irrigation is gradually reduced. Plants are given one final irrigation prior to overwintering.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 1.6 years
Harvest Date:September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Lake McDonald, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Outplanting Survival at 5 years: 86%

Outplanting Site: Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or Fall
Outplanting Survival at 4 years: 54%

Other Comments: M. repens is a good revegetation species that is heat and drought tolerant. It is considered a climax dominant species and establishes in shade and sun. Berries are a food source to many species of birds and deer and elk browse the leaves during the winter months.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1981.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Seeds of Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, N., published June, 1993.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

1996 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J., Lamb, B. and Funk, T. unpublished.

1998 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J and Kimball, S., unpublished.

Citation:
Wick, Dale; Keating, Rosemary.; Potter, Rachel.; Luna, Tara. 2001. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Mahonia repens (Lindl.)G. Don plants (490 ml containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 December 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Berberidaceae
Family Common Name: Barberry Family
Scientific Name: Mahonia repens (Lindl.) G. Don
Common Synonym: Berberis repens Lindl.
Common Name: Creeping Oregon Grape
Species Code: MAHREP
Ecotype: Open Lodgepole Forest, West Glacier, Glacier National Park, Flathead County, MT. 1030 meters
General Distribution: M. repens is found from dry foothills to lower montane forest; from eastern Washington south to northeastern California; east of the Cacades and east to Alberta, South Dakota,Texas, New Mexico, Utah and Nevada.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 1 Years
Target Specifications: Height: 4 cm
Caliper: 4 mm
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in early August when fruit turns dark blueto purple. Seeds are brown at maturity. Fruits are hand collected in plastic bags and kept under refrigeration prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with by maceration using a Dyb-vig seed cleaner at NRCS. Seeds are washed and screened.
Seed longevity is up to 5 years in dry storage.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 136,400/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 55 to 80%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in a 48 hour water soak. Seeds are put in fine mesh bags and buried in moist peat moss for 2 months at 21C (warm moist stratification) followed by 5 month cold moist stratification at 3C in ventilated containers.
Germination of this species is reported to occur over a several week period and is best at greenhouse temperatures of 13 to 19C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor Nursery
Seeding Method: Direct seeding or planting germinants. Planting germinants is preferable because of the prolonged stratification period. Seed is covered with media.
Growing Media:50% 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 50% washed sand containing Osmocote time relase fertilizer at the rate of .25 g and Micromax fertilizer at the rate of 0.20 g per 172 ml conetainer.
Establishment Phase: Media is kept evenly moist during germination by misting twice per day. Germination continues over a 8 week period and is best under fluctuating temperaures in the outdoor nursery in spring. No germination was obtained at greenhouse temperatures of 22C day/15C night.
Length of Establishment Phase: 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings develop 4 to 6 true leaves at the active growth stage. Seedlings are fertilized with liquid NPK at 100 ppm during the growing season.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8 weeks
Hardening Phase: Seedlings are fertilized with liquid 10-20-20 NPK at 200 ppm for 2 to 4 weeks prior to outplanting.
Length of Hardening Phase: 2 to 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest:1 year
Harvest Date:September
Storage: Seedlings are winterized outdoors under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: M. repens is a good species for restoration of roadsides, rangelands, and recreation areas. Once established, it is both heat and drought tolerant. Berries are a source of food for many species of birds and mammals and deer and elk browse the foliage in winter. It spreads by rhizomes and layering.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 1985.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Seeds of the Woody Plants of North America, Young and Young, Timber Press Inc., 1992.

Seed Germination Theeory and Practice, Deno, Penn State University,1991.

Glacier National Park propagation records, unpublished.

Propagation of Pacific Northwest Native Plants, Rose, R., Chachluski,C., and Haase, D., Oregon State University Press, 1998.

Citation:
Hosokawa, Joy; Luna, Tara.; Wick, Dale. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Mahonia repens (Lindl.) G. Don plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 December 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Berberidaceae
Family Common Name: Barberry family
Scientific Name: Berberis repens Lindl.
Common Synonym: Mahonia repens (Lindl.) Donn.
Common Name: Creeping oregon grape
Species Code: BERREP
General Distribution: B repens occurs from British Columbia and Alberta south to California, Arizona, new Mexico and Texas.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seed dormancy is physiological dormancy.Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 196 days.Germination occurs at 18 C.
References: Rudolf, P. O. (1974j). Berberis L. Barberry, mahonia. Pp. 247- 251. In: C. S. Schopmeyer (Tech. Coord.). Seeds of woody plants in the United States. USDA. Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook No. 450.
Table 10.36 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Berberis repens Lindl. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 22 December 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.