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Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass Family
Scientific Name: Andropogon virginicus L.
Common Name: Broomsedge
Species Code: ANDVIR
Ecotype: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, Foothills Parkway, Cades Cove; Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Virginia, Lewis Hollow, 1400’ elevation; National Capital Parks-East, Washington, D.C., Oxon Run
General Distribution: Andropogon virginicu grows from Massachusetts and New York west to Michigan and Kansas, and south to Florida, Texas, and Mexico; it grows in old fields, open woods, on sterile hills and sandy soil.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: Container plug
Time To Grow: 3 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 8-10, after cutbacks at outplanting; multiple stems.
Root System: Full, firm plug which leaves no loose soil when pulled.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, by NPS staff 11/23/93, 10/31/96; Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Virginia, by J. Englert 10/15/90; National Capital Parks-East, Washington, D.C., by S. Rudy 11/20/98, 1/20/99; National Plant Materials Center, Maryland, by D. Dusty 10/20/96, 12/11/96, 12/29/97, 1/4-6/99.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a debearder and seed clipper.
Seeds/Kg: 10,000,000.
Germination: 32% (test) Greenhouse germination has been around 8 or 9% or 800-900 plugs/gram of seed. Goals have been exceeded because seed is so small.
Purity: 93%.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures (set at 75/68F) and 12-14 hours of daylight extended with high-pressure sodium lights.

Container Type and Volume: Seeds are sown in 392 plug trays; seedlings are transplanted to either 72 plug trays or Ropak multipots depending whether out-planted mechanically or hand dibbled.

Growing Media: Seeds are hand-sown in Fafard Germinating Mix. Seedlings are transplanted into a 2:1 mix of Sunshine #5:Compro (1 bale Sunshine:2 bags Compro, with 180 day Nutricote Total (18-6-8) SR incorporated @ 20 oz./batch of mix (0.151b/cu ft mix). Compro is used to prevent chlorosis. Other organic substitutes for Compro are being evaluated.

Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Early winter.

Emergence and Date: 50% of the total number of seedlings germinate in the first 3-4 days; 100% in 2 weeks.

Sowing/Planting Technique: Seed is hand-sown into 392 plug trays at a rate computed to produce target number of plugs and compensate for low germination rate. Seeds are very lightly covered with germination mix, and watered. The plug trays are placed on heat mats (set at 75-80F) and covered with clear lightweight plastic. Trays are kept moist and on mats for 7-10 days. Germination occurs within 3-4 days, most plugs have multiple seedlings.

Establishment Phase: Transplanted to 72 plug flats or Ropak multipots about 30 days after germination. Seedlings are thinned as needed. A. virginicus seedlings germinate and grow more rapidly than A. gerardii and Schizachyrium scoparium.

Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Occurs when greenhouse solar levels increase in the spring. Established plugs are cut back periodically to 6-8” to enhance root and stem growth and to manually eliminate insect pests. Plugs are fertilized as needed (every 1-2 weeks) with Technigro 16-17-17 Plus, @ 100 ppm.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: 2-3 weeks prior to out-planting, fertilization is stopped, water is decreased, and greenhouse temperatures are reduced or plugs are moved outdoors.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: winter-grown greenhouse plugs are ready for out-planting about 90 days after they germinate.
Storage Conditions: N/A.
Other Comments: Compro has been added to the soil mix to prevent chlorosis that occurs in several species of warm season grasses grown in soilless media. Actino-iron, organic matter and other potting mixes are being evaluated as a substitute for Compro.
References: Manual of the Grasses of the United States, Hitchcock, 2nd edition, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.

Citation:
Kujawski, Jennifer L.; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Andropogon virginicus L. plants (Container plug); Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 23 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Natural Resources Conservation Service - Quicksand Plant Materials Center
175 Robinson Road
Quicksand, Kentucky 41363
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass
Scientific Name: Andropogon virginicus
Common Name: Broomsedge Bluestem
General Distribution: Relatively sterile, sandy soils of abandoned fields and thin woodlands, roadsides, waste areas. This species is found in the South and southeastern states including Massachusetts, New York, Michigan, Kansas, south to Florida and Texas, California, and Mexico. It is a warm-season bunchgrass.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Collected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Propagule Processing: EASE OF COLLECTION: Seed is difficult to collect from this species as the seed is very small, has very hairy appendages, and remains partially enclosed in the leaf sheath. Most fields in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park with abundant plants were mowed before seed set.
TYPE OF MATERIAL COLLECTED FOR PROPAGATION: Seed culms including leaf and stem material.METHOD OF CLEANING: No successful method has been found. Attempts were made to remove seed from culm using a hammermill. As seed is very light, seed that was removed scattered in the air. Much of the seed remained in the leaf sheath. Attempts to have seed debearded were unsuccessful.
UNUSUAL OR UNIQUE PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS: Cleaning of seed will be very difficult because of the very small seed and hairy appendages.
NUMBER OF SEEDS PER POUND: Data not available at date of publication.
PERCENT GERMINATION: Data not available at date of publication.
Pre-Planting Treatments: PRETREATMENT USED: None.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

PROPAGATION METHOD: As seed has been very limited, no attempts to propagate seed have been made. Depending on available material, plans in 1993 are to chop vegetative and seed material and use as a mulch, which will be scattered and lightly covered with soil.
Active Growth Phase: METHOD OF GROWING: No plantings have been attempted because of limited seed material and seed-cleaning difficulties.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: UNUSUAL OR UNIQUE HARVESTING OR DIGGING REQUIREMENTS: Tentative plans in 1993 are to harvest fields within Cades Cove of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park by mowing, raking, and baling material. This material will then be chopped in some way and mulched to an area in an attempt to establish.
SEED MATURITY DATE: Data not available at date of publication.
STORAGE REQUIREMENTS: Data unavailable at date of publication.
ESTIMATED PROPAGULE STORAGE POTENTIAL: Data unavailable at date of publication.

Citation:
, 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Andropogon virginicus seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Quicksand Plant Materials Center, Quicksand, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 23 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.