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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower family
Scientific Name: Solidago canadensis L. salabrosa (Piper) Jones
Common Synonym: Solidago elongata Nutt.
Common Name: Canada goldenrod
Species Code: SOLCAN
Ecotype: Forest margin in well drained soils, Fish Creek, 3500’ elevation, Glacier National Park, MT.
General Distribution: S. canadensis is a widespread, circumboreal species, occurring throughout North America and southern Canada and Alaska and Eurasia. It grows in moist soil of meadows, thickets, avalanche slopes and in open forest.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 3 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 10 cm, 8 to 10 true leaves
Caliper: n/a
Root System: firm plug in 160 ml conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected in October when the pappus is fully extended and the achenes turn dark brown and are easily separated from the disc.
Seeds are collected in paper bags and are kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with a hammermill and office clipper at NRCS.
Seed longevity is up to 5 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as nondormant.
Seeds/Kg: 4,400,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 50%
Pre-Planting Treatments: None.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and outdoor nursery.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seed is lightly covered with medium.
Careful attention should be made when covering seeds. Germination rate will decrease if seeds are buried too deeply in containers.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per conetainer.
Conetainers are filled and sown and irrigated thoroughly. Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 22C day/ 13C night during germination and growth.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept evenly moist during germination.
Germination is usually complete in 1 to 2 weeks. Seedlings are thinned at the true leaf stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 3 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Shoot and root development occur rapidly following germination. Plants are fertilized with 20-10-20 liquid NPK fertilizer at 100 ppm until root tightness is obtained. Plants are rhizomatous and quickly fill conetainers in 4 to 5 weeks.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 5 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are leached with clear water and fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK fertilizer once before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total time To Harvest: 3 months
Harvest Date: June
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: S. canadensis readily establishes on road shoulders and old burns and is vigourously rhizomatous. It is an excellent forb for erosion control.
There are 3 botanical varieties in the Pacific Northwest: subserrata, gilvocanescens, and salebrosa
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Citation:
Wick, Dale; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff.; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Solidago canadensis L. salabrosa (Piper) Jones plants (160 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Martin van der Grinten
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Big Flats Plant Materials Center
RD #1, Route 352, Box 360A
Corning, New York 14830-0360
(607) 562-8404
(607) 562-8516
martin.vandergrinten@ny.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Composite Family
Scientific Name: Solidago canadensis L.
Common Name: Canada goldenrod
Species Code: SOCA6
Ecotype: Mt. Desert Island, Maine
General Distribution: Canada goldenrod is found throughout the United States.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Plant plugs, 1" x 1" x 4" cell size.
Height: Approximately 4 inches. Herbaceous perennial.
Root System: Firm root plug for a greenhouse crop plant.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Acadia National Park, Maine by Martin van der Grinten in October and hand harvested when seeds develop a grayish cast.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Allow all the seed to dry after harvesting. Material is rubbed on a rubbing board and then run on the Clipper (office model) seed cleaning machine, using 1/22 round top screen, blank bottom screen with air 50% open. When the seed is harvested by a combine from production fields, it is laid out on tarps and allowed to completely dry. Once dry, the material is run across a scalper with a 12/64 round top screen to remove the large sticks/stems. The next step is to run it across a seed cleaner (Clipper, Model Midget II), with a top screen of 12/64 round, ablank bottom screen and the air 10% open. Then do a second run through the Clipper with 7/64 round top screen, a blank bottom screen and the air 10% open. The harvest weight was 63 pounds and after processing, it was 35 pounds. The seed test had 12% pure seed and 88% inert matter. The seed is so small, it is hard to clean.
Seeds/Kg: 2,000,000 seeds per pound.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None. Seed has very low viability.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse for seeding and initial growth at 70°F and lathe house for growing and hardening off.
Seed Propagation Method: Plants grown in Rootrainers. The Rootrainer (bookplanter) allows the plug to be removed by the root system.
Container Type and Volume: Rootrainers, 1" x 1" x 4" cell size.
Growing Media: Metro-Mix 360 media.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Start plants in greenhouse in February for spring planting.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Hand sowing with a light layer of Metro-Mix applied on top after seeding, followed by a through watering. Try to sprinkle 4 to 5 seeds per cell.
Establishment Phase: Rootrainers need to be watered regularly. Germination is relatively uniform. Greenhouse temperature should be 70°F. Germination occurs in one to two weeks.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Monitor watering. Fertilization with Miracle-Gro can be applied. Plants can be thinned to 2 plants per cell.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: The Rootrainers are moved from the greenhouse to outside lathe house in early spring prior to being transplanted.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: October.
Storage Conditions: Store dried seed in cooler at 40°F.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Acadia National Park.
Outplanting Date: Transplant in spring/early summer.
References: Native Plant Propagation Techniques for National Parks, by NRCS and NPS, 1993.

Newcomb's Flower Guide, by Lawrence Newcomb. Little Brown and Company, 1977.

Citation:
van der Grinten, Martin 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Solidago canadensis L. plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Big Flats Plant Materials Center, Corning, New York. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Aster Family
Scientific Name: Solidago canadensis
Common Name: Canada goldenrod
Species Code: SOLCAN
Ecotype: George Washington Memorial Parkway
General Distribution: Throughout U.S. and southern Canada and Alaska. Found in moist or dry soils, common in open places.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container plug.
Height: 4-6" after cutbacks.
Root System: Firm full plug.
Propagule Collection: Collected at George Washington Memorial Parkway, Spout Run Exit by J. Englert on 11/13/95.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Any large pieces of chaff are removed by hand; otherwise, seed is relatively uncleaned.
Seeds/Kg: N/A.
Germination: Untested. 1997 yield was 2,200 seedlings per gram of seed sown.
Purity: N/A.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: With solidago species, we have found that uniformity and speed of germination is greatly improved by surface sowing the seed on moist media, covering the trays with plastic to trap moisture and placing the trays on heat mats set to keep the media around 80-86ºF. The key appears to be warmth as trays given mist without heat did not germinate as quickly or uniformly.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures; daytime temperatures varied from 70-85ºF during the winter months depending on natural solar; night temperatures averaged around 65-68ºF. Extended daylight provided from 4:30-10:30 with high intensity lights.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand sown into plug trays.
Container Type and Volume: Seed is sown into 392 plug trays and seedlings transplanted to 72 plug trays or Ropak multipots.
Growing Media: Germination mix is used for starts in 392’s. For 72 plug trays and multipot containers: Sunshine #1 or #5 potting mix, amended with 18-6-8,180-day Nutricote SR at 0.15 lb./cu. ft., or 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of potting media.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Fall or winter.
% Emergence and Date: 6-7 days.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seed is heavily sown onto germination mix in propagation plug trays, kept evenly moist and given bottom heat until germinated.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings were transplanted to multipots about 4 weeks from germination.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Cutback of foliage was performed at about 10 weeks. Fertilized lightly approximately bi-weekly or as needed with soluble fertilizer at approximately 75-100 ppm N.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Two weeks prior to outplanting, the greenhouse is cooled down or plugs are moved outdoors, depending on weather, and fertilization is stopped.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: About 14 weeks.
Harvest Date: Plugs are not overwintered.
Seed storage: In seed bags in National Plant Materials Center cooler at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: None indicated.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: George Washington Memorial Parkway.
Outplanting Date: Spring.
References: Brown, M. L. and R. G. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc.

Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern.

Citation:
Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Solidago canadensis plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Richard L. Wynia
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Manhattan Plant Materials Center
3800 S. 20th Street
Manhattan, Kansas 66502-9535
(785) 539-8761
(785) 539-6928
rich.wynia@ks.nrcs.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/kspmc


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Aster
Scientific Name: Solidago canadensis
Common Name: Goldenrod OR Canada Goldenrod
General Distribution: A widespread, highly diverse species throughout much of North America, with several semi-distinctive regional and ecological varieties. It frequently forms dense colonies in both. upland and lowland sites. Occurs in damp and dry open places, often in loose soils, and in clearings in wooded areas.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Processing: EASE OF COLLECTION: Seed stripped from plant inflorescences.
METHOD OF CLEANING: Utilized rub board to hand clean and extract achenes from inflorescence. Hand-screened product with 1/24 box screen. Small inert material removed with the South Dakota seed blower. Seed lot purity not very good, many stems and other inert materials approximately the same size as achenes in seed lot.
TYPE OF MATERIAL COLLECTED FOR PROPAGATION: Seed (achene) and rhizomes.
PROPAGATION METHOD: Seed or division. Germination requirements not studied to any degree.
NUMBER OF SEEDS PER POUND: Small seed size, up to 1.3 million seeds per pound.
PERCENT GERMINATION: Conflicting reports concerning germination potential.
Pre-Planting Treatments: PRETREATMENT USED: Seed may require stratification period to germinate at full potential.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

METHOD OF GROWING: Data unavailable at date of publication.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: SEED MATURITY DATE: Fall.
UNUSUAL OR UNIQUE HARVESTING OR DIGGING REQUIREMENTS: Can be divided and transplanted in fall or spring.
STORAGE REQUIREMENTS: Data unavailable at date of publication.
ESTIMATED PROPAGULE STORAGE POTENTIAL: Data unavailable at date of publication.
References: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Weaver, J.E. 1954. North American Prairie. Lincoln, Nebraska.: Johnsen Publishing Co.

Citation:
Wynia, Richard 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Solidago canadensis seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.