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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Polygonaceae
Family Common Name: Buckwheat Family
Scientific Name: Eriogonum umbellatum Torr.
Common Name: Sulphur Buckwheat
Species Code: ERIUMB
Ecotype: Idaho fescue prairie, Rising Sun, Saint Mary valley, Glacier National Park, Glacier County, Montana, 1520 meters
General Distribution: E. umbellatum is found from sagebrush deserts to alpine rocky ridges; mostly east of the Cascades, from southern British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming,Colorado,Utah, and Arizona.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 6 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: container seedling
Height: 1 cm with multiple leaves
Caliper: N/A
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected in late August when corolla becomes papery. Seeds are tan at maturity. Seeds are collected in paper bags and kept in a well ventilated greenhouse during the drying process and prior to cleaning.
Collection Locality: Rising Sun, Glacier National Park, MT.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned using an air blower with screens to separate chaff from live seeds.
Seed longevity is 5 to 7 years in sealed containers at 3 to 5C with low relative humidity.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds per kilogram: 480,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 89%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are imbibed in water for 10 minutes prior to a 60 to 90 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are placed in fine mesh bags and buried in peat moss in ventilated containers under refrigeration at 1 to 3C. Many seeds had radicle emergence after 60 days in cold, moist stratification and were planted as germinants.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and outdoor nursery.
Sowing Method: Planting Germinants. Seeds are lightly covered with medium.
Container Type and Volume: 160 ml (7 cu. inch) Ray-leach conetainers.
Medium: 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, vermiculite.
Establishment Phase: Germinants are lightly covered with perlite and thoroughly watered. Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day for 12 hours and 16 to 18C during the night. Germination is non-uniform and continues over a 3 week period. Cotyledons emerge 10 days after sowing. True leaves appear 3 weeks after sowing. Seedlings are irrigated only when the medium is dry on the surface during this stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 6 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings produce multiple leaves and stolons with plantlets 8 weeks after sowing. Seedlings are irrigated only when medium becomes dry. Seedlings must fry down between irrigations.
Seedlings are fertilized twice weekly with 20-10-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm during this stage. Plants are moved from the greenhouse to the outdoor nursery 12 weeks after sowing. Plants are fully root tight 18 weeks after sowing.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 6 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: E. umbellatum occupies a wide range of elevations and habitats; chilling requirements have been shown to vary considerably from one collection site to another.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press,7th printing, 1973.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press,1998.

Chilling Requirements for Seed Germination of 10 Utah species of Perennial Buckwheat, Meyer and Paulsen, Native Plants Journal, Volume 1, Spring 2000. pp 18-24.

Glacier National Park Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Corey, Susan; Luna, Tara. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 25 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Susan Meyer
Research Ecologist
USDA FS - Rocky Mountain Research Station, Shrub Sciences Laboratory
735 North 500 east
Provo, Utah 84606
smeyer@sisna.com


Family Scientific Name: Polygonaceae
Family Common Name: Buckwheat family
Scientific Name: Eriogonum umbellatum
Common Name: Sulphur buckwheat
Species Code: ERIUMB
Ecotype: Utah 2150 to 3480m
General Distribution: E. umbellatum is found throughout the western United States; from low elevation plains and deserts to the subalpine zone.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Propagule Collection: E. alatum flowers in early to late summer and seeds ripen in late August to early September, depending on elevation.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned by hand rubbing material through a 2 mm round hole screen. Caff is removed from seed by using a tabletop model blower.
Achenes are stored at 20 to 22C with 30 to 40% relative humidity in paper envelopes until mid October.
Achene mass averages 1.4 to 2.6 mg per 100 achenes.
Pre-Planting Treatments: 6 prechilling treatments were used: 0,2,4,8,12,16 and 24 weeks of moist chilling at 2C in the dark.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Following chilling treatments, seeds were incubated 4 weeks under a daily temperature and photoperiod regime (12hr dark at 10C and 12hr light at 20C)with a cool flourescent light.
Achenes were placed in disposable petri plates on 2 blue germination blotter papers moistened with tap water. Blotter papers were re-moistened as needed.
Establishment Phase: Results and Discussion: 5 collections of E. umbellatum represented 3 subspecies; they showed considerable variation in chilling requirement.
The Red Canon collection was the least dormant, requiring only an 8 wk prechill to become completely germinable.
the collection from alpine tundra in the Uinta mountains ( E. umbellatum ssp.portei) was the most dormant, requiring 24 weeks of chilling to lose dormancy completely and only germinated to slightly more than 50% during 24 weeks in the cold.
References: Chilling Requirements for seed germination of 10 Utah species of perennial wild buckwheat. Meyer SE and Paulsen A. Native Plants Journal, Spring 2000, 1(1):18-24.

Citation:
Anonymous. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Eriogonum umbellatum plants; USDA FS - Rocky Mountain Research Station, Shrub Sciences Laboratory, Provo, Utah. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 25 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Polygonaceae
Scientific Name: Eriogonum umbellatum
Common Name: Sulphur flower
Species Code: ERUM
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Seed cleaning technique: Seeds removed from seed head by crushing “flowers” and removing seed with tweezers.

MPCG (98-049s) collected on 9/9/98; MPCG (98-073s) collected on 9/9/98; Twin Sisters (98-048s) collected on 8/27/98; Twin Sisters (98-075s) collected on 8/27/98; Sprague Lake (98-010s) collected on 9/16/98.

Propagule Processing: Germination: All of the following locations low percentage:

MPCG (98-049s, 98-073s); Twin Sisters (98-048s, 98-075s); Sprague Lake (98-010s).

Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed treatments: None, 30 day cold moist.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse, 65-70ºF day/55ºF night. Propagated on heat pad (set at 70ºF) under tent with misters set 8 am-8 pm, with 10 sec/15 min watering intervals. One week after germination, seedlings were moved to mister area without tent.
Germination media: Fafard Germinating Mix (superfine).
Growing media: Fafard Growing Mix 2.
Establishment Phase: Sowing/planting technique: Manually sowed in seed flat 2-3/slot, lightly covered with germinating mix.
Time to germination: 6 days.
Establishment Phase: Germination uneven.
Time to potting: 1 month.

MPCG (98-049s) sowed 12/4/98; MPCG (98-073s) sowed 11/12/98; Twin Sisters (98-048s) sowed 11/12/98; Twin Sisters (98-075s) sowed 12/4/98; Sprague Lake (98-010s) sowed 10/27/98.

Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Seed storage condition: Seed stored in the greenhouse.
Other Comments: Comments: 30 day cold, moist treatment did not seem to enhance germination.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Eriogonum umbellatum seeds; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 25 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Polygonaceae
Family Common Name: Buckwhet family
Scientific Name: Eriogonum umbellatum Torr.
Common Name: Sulphur buckwheat
Species Code: ERIUMB
General Distribution: E. umbellatum is found from southern British Columbia south to California and east to Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Arizona.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seed dormancy is physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold stratification. Germination occurs at 30D/10N C and 35/5 C alternating temperature cycle.
References: Young, J. A. (1989). Germination of seeds of sulphur flower (Eriogonum umbellatum Torr.). J. Seed Technol. 13, 31-38.
Table 10.28 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 25 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.