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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower family
Scientific Name: Gaillardia aristata Pursh.
Common Name: Indian Blanket Flower
Species Code: GAIARI
Ecotype: Exposed slope, near Big Drift, 6000 elev., GlacCo., Glacier National Park, MT.
General Distribution: G. aristata is a common cordilleran species; occurring from B.C. and Manitoba south to Oregon, Colorado, and South Dakota.
It grows in grasslands and meadows in the montane zone and is occasionally found near treeline in the mountains. In inhabits rocky or well drained soils.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml containers
Time To Grow: 5 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 6 to 10 true leaves, 7 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: Firm plug in 160 ml conetainer
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected in late August and early September when achenes separate easily from the receptacle. Seeds are grey to dark brown at maturity. Seeds are collected in paper bags and kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned by NRCS; using a hammermill, followed by an office clipper.
Seed Storage is up to 5 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy. Autumn maturing Asteraceae species may have non deep physiological dormancy which is overcome by dry storage in many cases.
Seeds/Kg: 199,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 92%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 30 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds that have been dry stored for 3 months or more do not require a stratification to overcome dormancy. However, a brief stratification improves germination uniformity.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are lightly covered with medium or grit.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer. Conetainers are filled, sown and irrigated thoroughly.
Establishment Phase: Seeds germinate uniformly in 10 to 15 days at 22C. Germination to true leaf stage is 7 to 15 days. Seedlings are thinned at this stage. After seedlings are well established, they must dry down slightly between irrigations.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: There is rapid root and shoot development during the growing season. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK fertilizer at 100 ppm weekly until fall. Some plants were flowering 16 weeks following germination.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8 to 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK fertilizer at 200 ppm in fall; pots are leached with water, irrigation is gradually reduced through September and October.
Length of Hardening Phase: 2 to 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 5 months
Harvest Date: July
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: It is important to protect nursery stock from excessive moisture. This species has a slender taproot that is susceptible to root rot.
Gaillardia aristata is a pioneer species on coarse soils in grasslands, open slopes, and talus slides at higher elevations.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, Norman, Penn. State University, publ.1993.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, National Park Service, Hassell, Wendel, April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Glacier National Park Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Wick, Dale; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff.; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Gaillardia aristata Pursh. plants (160 ml containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Scientific Name: Gaillardia aristata
Common Name: Blanketflower
Ecotype: Colorado, Moraine Park (98-041s), Twin Sisters (98-083s), Hollowell Park (98-087s), McGraw Ranch (98-136s)
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Seed cleaning technique: Seeds removed from seed head.

Moraine Park (98-041s) collected on 8/24/98; Twin Sisters (98-083s) collected on 8/27/98; Hollowell Park (98-087s) collected on 8/9/98.

Propagule Processing: Germination: Moraine Park (98-041s) low percentage; Twin Sisters (98-083s) 50%; Hollowell Park (98-087s) low percentage.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed treatments: None.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse, 65-70ºF day/55ºF night. Propagated under tent with misters set 8 am-8 pm, with 10 sec/15 min watering intervals. One week after germination, seedlings were moved to mister area without tent.
Germination media: Fafard Germinating Mix (superfine).
Growing media: Fafard Growing Mix 2.
Establishment Phase: Sowing/planting technique: Surface sown in 36 pk, with 2-3 seeds/slot. Pressed seeds firmly into soil.
Time to germination: 13 days (at least, second round of germination may occur much later).
Establishment Phase: Germination uneven, slow growth.
Time to potting: 1 month.

Moraine Park (98-041s) sowed 10/28/98; Twin Sisters (98-083s) sowed 11/12/98; Hollowell Park (98-087s) sowed 11/16/98.

Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Seed storage condition: Seed stored in the greenhouse.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Gaillardia aristata seeds; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Mark E. Majerus
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center
99 South River Road, Rte. 2, Box 1189
Bridger, Montana 59014-9718
(406) 662-3579
(406) 662-3428
mmajerus@mt.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Aster
Scientific Name: Gaillardia aristata
Common Name: Common gaillardia or Indian blanketflower
Species Code: GAAR
Ecotype: See
General Distribution: British Columbia to Saskatchewan, south to northern Oregon, northern Utah, Colorado, and South Dakota; dry, open foothills and mountain grasslands.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Target Specifications: Harvest yields vary due to weather and age of stand. Average annual production is 25 kg/ha (22 lb/ac).
Propagule Collection: Wildland collection occurs mid July to late August when the yellow and red ray flower is no longer present and the obpyramidal achene has not shattered (natural dispersal) from the globe-like seedhead; the prickly seedhead is easily hand-harvested.

One collection hour/person yielded 128 grams (4.5 oz) clean seed and varies by year, stand density, and collector experience.

Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed is spread out on a tarp in a dry, sheltered environment and turned daily for approximately 3-5 days, until no moisture or warmth is detected. After drying, seed is threshed with a hammermill through an 8/64” round hole screen, air-screen processed on a Clipper M2B or Eclipse cleaner over a 10/64” or 12/64” round hole screen with moderate wind. Due to the persistent hairy pappus, and poor seed flow, this species is moderately difficult to clean. Larger seed lots are processed most efficiently with mechanized cleaning equipment, and smaller seed lots usually require more hand labor.
Seeds/Kg: 378,000.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None required.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Seedbed is firm and free of weeds with good field moisture to 4” depth.
Seed Propagation Method: Direct seeding.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Spring.
Sowing/Planting Technique: 25-30 pure live seed/ft (0.3 m) row, irrigated 91-cm (36-in) row spacing, seeded with push-type belt seeder, optimum seeding depth 1.3 cm (0.50 in).
Establishment Phase: Soil surface is kept moist throughout the 14 day germination and emergence period (also helps prevent soil crusting (also helps prevent soil crusting).
Length of Establishment Phase: 2 growing seasons.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Summer to fall; soil moisture is critical during budding stage, after anthesis, and post harvest to pre-freezeup- -no irrigation is applied during flowering (pollination).

Fertilizer application is not recommended the first year, as it generally stimulates weed growth and competition.

Length of Active Growth Phase: 2 to 3 growing seasons.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Cultivated harvest occurred late July to early August, with an average harvest date of August 6 at the Bridger Plant Materials Center.

Storage Conditions: Inflorescences were hand-harvested, placed in plastic sacks, and transported to drying area. Seed is placed in cloth or paper seed sacks, and stored in a cool, dry environment.
Seed Dormancy Classified as physiological dormancy.

Length of Storage: Storage Duration: 5-7 years.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Sites: Babb Airport and North Fork Road.
Other Comments: Ecotype: 2 Glacier National Park accessions periodically collected and produced from 1988 to 1995. Elevation ranges 1,219 m to 1,378 m (4,000 ft to 4,520 ft).
References: Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, C. C. Baskin and J. M. Baskin, Academic Press, 2001.

Vascular Plants of West-Central Montana: Identification Guidebook, Klaus Lackschewitz, USDA USFS, Intermountain Research Station, General Technical Report INT-277, 1991.

Plants of Waterton-Glacier National Parks and The Northern Rockies. R. J. Shaw and D. On. Mountain Press Publishing Co., Missoula, Montana, 1979.

Citation:
Winslow, Susan R. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Gaillardia aristata seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center, Bridger, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.