Untitled Page
About Us
Journal
Propagation Protocol Database
Links
Subscribe to Native Plant Journal
Print View

Protocol Information

Charles Gramling
USDA FS - WW Ashe Nursery (closed)
368 Ashe Nursery Rd.
Brooklyn, Mississippi 39367


Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine family
Scientific Name: Pinus palustris
Common Name: Longleaf pine
Species Code: PINPAL
Ecotype: West Gulf Region
General Distribution: The natural range of Pinus palustris includes most of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Plains from southeastern Virginia to eastern Texas and south through the the northern two thirds of pensisular Florida. It also grows in the Piedmont Ridge and Valley, and Mountain Provinces of Alabama and northwest Georgia.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 1+0 container plugs
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Height: None; no stem elongation; needles 20 to 30 cm long.
Caliper: 6 to 12 mm.
Root System: Firm root plug.
Propagule Collection: Source of Seeds: Longleaf pine seed orchards in Texas, Louisana, Mississippi
Propagule Processing: Remove empties by gravity table separation.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Treat with Thiram.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Open growing facility.

Container type and volume: Pinus palustris are very sensitive to competition and should be grown at a cell density of less than 540 cell/m2 to achieve good seedling quality. The Multipot 3/96 has atop opening of 3.8 cm and is 12 cm deep. The cavities are 98cm3 in volume with a cell density of 441/m2.

Growing medium: 50% spaghnum peat and 50% #2 grade vermiculite. The pH of the medium may need to be adjusted with lime to the level of 5.0. A slow release fertilizer, such as Osmocote 18-6-12, is incorporated into the medium at the rate of 6 lbs/cu. yard. Fill cavities and tamp lightly to remove air pockets. Brush media to make room for seed placement.

Sowing Date: May 1st

Sowing Technique: Sow 1 or 2 seeds per cavity depending on seed viability. These should be thinned to 1 seedling per cell before seed coats are shed. Oversowing or thinning is preferred to transplanting germinants.

Establishment Phase: Pinus palustris seeds germinate best at cooler temperatures, therfore, crops should be started by early May when outdoor temperatures are near the optimum 21C and with a range of 15C to 27C. Frequent misting is all that is needed during germination to keep the media moist. Care should be taken not to overwater which can cause lower germination and promote disease problems. Fungicide applications should begin as soon as feasilble to reduce damping off of germinants and inhibit pathogenic fungi development. Seedlings develop best in full sunlight so no shading is necessary.
Length of Establishment Phase: 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After seedlings are established, the frequency of irrigation is reduced. Seedlings should be watered thoroughly and the media surface allowed to dry between waterings. Some supplemental fertilization with a high nitrogen but balanced fertilizer solution, such as Peters 15-16-17 NPK Peat lite Special, should be used to maintain proper foliage coloration. Clipping and mowing is needed when needles begin to lay over the surrounding seedlings. Needles should not be clipped to less than 15 cm.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 15 weeks
Hardening Phase: Hardening should begin when stem diameters are near the desired size or when daylengths and temperatures restrict growth. Seedlings should be stressed by reducing water availibilty and withholding nutrients.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: October 1 or as soil moisture at the planting site becomes sufficient for outplanting in the fall. Planting may continue throughout the fall and winter. Storage Conditions: Seedlings can be held in the containers at the nursery unless temperatures below -8C are anticipated over a several day peroid. Seedlings may also be extracted from containers, boxed, and stored under refrigeration similiar to bareroot stock.

Storage Duration: Containerized stock can be held throughout the winter at the nursery if protected from extreme freezing temperatures. Holding in the nursery is practical because no stem elongation occursand some stem diameter growth does occur during warm periods. Those extracted and boxed can be held under refrigeration for 4 to 6 weeks.

Length of Storage: See above

Citation:
Gramling, Charles 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Pinus palustris plants (1+0 container plugs); USDA FS - WW Ashe Nursery (closed), Brooklyn, Mississippi. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

James Barnett
Chief Silviculturist
USDA FS - Southern Research Station
2500 Shreveport Highway
Pineville, Louisiana 71360
jpbarnett@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine Family
Scientific Name: Pinus palustris P. Mill.
Common Name: Longleaf Pine
Species Code: PINPAL
Ecotype: Louisiana
General Distribution: P. palustris is found from east Texas through the lower coastal plain to Virginia.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 1+0 container
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 15 cm
Caliper:7 to 9mm
Propagule Collection: Cones are collected in September and October, with seeds dispersing naturally from October to November. Obtaining good quality seeds is difficult.
Propagule Processing: Seeds have persistent wings and are easliy damaged during processing and extraction.

Seeds/kg: 2000/kg

Pre-Planting Treatments: Use seeds with at least an 80% viability to reduce costs of thinning and transplanting.

Since long leaf pine seeds typically have pathogenic fungi, it is necessary to treat seeds with a fungicide. Soaking seeds in a 30% hydrogen peroxide for 1 hour or 10 minute bath in benomyl solution (5g/L [2 tbsp/gal]) reduces fungal infestation and improves germination.

Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Seedlings are grown outdoors in full sun.

Sowing Method: Seeds are sown in spring (March to May) and are sown by hand using simple dibble boards or seeding machines, depending on crop size. Seeds are coverd to a depth of 3mm with grit, medium, or vermiculite. Seeds with high viability are sown one per cell and are oversown depending on germination percentage.

Growing Medium used is 1:1 mix of peat moss and #2 grade perlite. Medium ph should be held at 4.5 to 5.0 pH to restrict pathogenic fungi. Most growers incorporate 8 to 9 month, controlled release fertilizer (typically Osmocote 18N:6P0205:12K20 at 2 to 3.5 kg/m2 of medium.

Container Type and Volume: An ideal container for growing longleaf pine should have a volume of 100 ml, and a minimum depth of 11 cm, and a density of less than 535 seedlings per m2. Styroblocks, Multi-pots and HIKO containers are widely used in the southern United States.

Establishment Phase: Controlling temperature during germination is important since long leaf pine is ecologically adapted to fall germination. Day and night temperatures should be near 22C with a permissible range of 15 to 27C.

Water frequently but lightly to facilitate germination and avoid diseases. Fungicide applications should begin as soon as feasible to reduce damping-off and inhibit pathogenic fungi.

Active Growth Phase: Seedlings must be monitore for pest and weed problems. Some common pests include; cutworms, fungus gnats, and ants.

Since stem elongation is delayed for this species, rapid growth is exhibited by needle growth. Heavy fertilization schedules promote root collar growth, but may require needle clipping to prevent lodging of the long needles that may reach lengths to 30 to 35 cm in length. Needle clipping may be necessary to prevent non uniform growth problems with neighboring seedlings and to reduce fungal problems. Clip only enough needles to reduce the problem; needles should not be clipped less than 15cm in length.

Hardening Phase: Medium should be allowed to dry near the wilting point between irrigation applications to enhance hardening, mycorrhizae and root development. Few, if any nutreints should be applied at this stage.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Growers may extract seedlings from the containers at the nursery or at the planting site. Before extraction, seedlings should be thoroughly watered.

Place seedlings in cardbard boxes for shipment. Properly hardened, container seedlings seedlings can be extracted, boxed and stored at 1 to 3C for several weeks.

Outplanting performance on typical sites: The control of planting depth is critical for this species. The bud should be at about the soil surface.

Longleaf pine seedlings are planted in the fall, once there is ample soil moisture. in Florida, seedlings are planted during the rainy months of June, July, and August. Root systems become well established during winter months.

Height growth is not initiated before root collar diameters reach about 2.5 cm.

Outplanting survival of container seedlings is usually very good.

References: Growing Longleaf Pine Seedlings in Containers, Barnett, J., and McGilvray, J., Native Plants Journal, Fall 2000, 1:54-58.

Citation:
Barnett, James P.; McGilvray, John M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Pinus palustris P. Mill. plants (1+0 container); USDA FS - Southern Research Station, Pineville, Louisiana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine family
Scientific Name: Pinus palustris P. Mill.
Common Name: Longleaf pine
Species Code: PINPAL
General Distribution: P. palustris is found in the southeastern United States.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are cold stratified for 30 to 60 days and germinate at 21C. Germination is greater in light than in dark.
References: Barton, L. V. (1928). Hastening the germination of southern pine seeds. Boyce Thompson Inst. Plant Res. Prof. Paper 1(9), 58-69.
McLemore, B. F. and Hansbrough, R. T. (1970). Influence of light on germination of Pinus palustris seeds. Physiol. Plant. 23, 1-10.
In: Baskin, C. and Baskin, J. Table 10.15 Chapter 10. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, 1998. 666 pages.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Pinus palustris P. Mill. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.