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Protocol Information

David J. Horvath
Nursery Manager
Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery
17855 N. CR 2400E
Topeka, Illinois 61567

Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower family
Scientific Name: Coreopsis lanceolata L.
Common Synonym: Coreopsis crassifolia Ait.
Common Name: Lance Leaf Coreopsis
Species Code: CORLAN
Ecotype: Central Illinois, 650 feet msl elevation
General Distribution: C. lanceolata is found from New England west to Wisconsin and south to Oklahoma and Texas.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 1+0 container plugs
Time To Grow: 11 Months
Target Specifications: Height: n/a, herbaceous perennial.
Caliper: n/a, herbaceous perennial.
Root System: firm root plug.
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from nursery stock. The plant flowers from approx. May 15 to June 10. Seed is harvested June 22.
Propagule Processing: After drying, seed is cleaned by running it through the Dybvig, dry then over the Clipper with a top screen of 10 and a bottom screen of 1/15. Run serveral times through this entire process.
This seed can be cleaned to 74% purity with 25,000 seeds per ounce.
Pre-Planting Treatments: 8 ounces of seed is saved to sow one bench in either 64 flats of the Multipot #6, or 24 flats of the Multipot #3 or #4.
Seed is damp stratified by mixing it with equal amounts of vermiculite and lightly dampening in a plastic bag or container.
Store this seed for 3- 4 months in a cold room of 34-36 degrees F.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Fully controlled greenhouse.
Container Type and Volume: Multipot #3, #4, or #6 are used. Cell volumes are 6 cubic inches, 9 cu. in. and 6 cu. in. respectively.
Growing Media: Sterile, Pro-Mix PGX. Add vermiculite and perlite at a 10:1 ratio. Mix in 5 ounces of Osmocote, slow release fertilizer, 17-6-10, per cubic foot of soil. Ensure flats are tapped down to prevent settling.
Total Time to Harvest: 7-11 months, depending on weather and plant/root development.
Sowing Date: Three crops are started in the greenhouse with the first in late December and the last no later than the end of March.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Sow the seeds by hand by broadcasting. Try to sprinkle 3-5 seeds per cell. Seed purity rates vary from year to year. Thus, it is easier to thin than to transplant. Cover the seeds to one times their depth with the same growing media. Use a dibble board or roller to gently press seed and cover soil in the cell.
Establishment Phase: Set the greenhouse temperatures to be 70-80 degrees during the day, and 65-75 degrees at night.
75% germination is reached in about one week.
Plants must be watered by hand during germination. Set the hose on gentle shower to prevent seeds from splashing out.
Active Growth Phase: Once germination is successful, the greenhouse temperature may be turned down gradually depending on outside temperatures. Plants are irrigated in the morning by soaking for 20 to 30 minutes. This allows the foliage to dry out during the day. Once true leaves appear, not cotyledons, the plants may be fertilized. Start with 50 ppm of Rapid Grow or Peter's Liquid Fertilizer once a week. This rate is increased to 200 ppm gradually, and, again, decreased to 50 ppm before moving the plants outside to the shadehouse. It is important to rinse fertilizer residue off the foliage by running the irrigation for 30 seconds. Plants should be thinned to 2 plants per cell. This should be accomplished before the roots are too extensive. When foliage reaches 8 to 10 inches, the plants need to be pruned back to 3 or 4 inches. This is accomplished by turning the flats on their sides and cutting with scissors or sheers. Make sure the clippings are all removed from the flats to prevent disease spread.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8 months
Hardening Phase: The first greenhouse crop will be moved to a hoop house in late January to February. To acclimate the plants, the irrigation rate is reduced to 50 ppm before moving and greenhouse temperatures are decreased to 55-60 degrees day. The second and third crops are moved directly to the shadehouse in April and May. Again, greenhouse controls and fertilization rates are adjusted in preparation for the move. Plants that reach 8-10 inches in the shadehouse will require pruning also.
Length of Hardening Phase: 1 month
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Flats may be unplugged in October or November as long as most of the tops have died down.
Storage Conditions: Plugs that are not shipped during this fall's planting season may be stored for spring planting in cold rooms above freezing, preferably 40-50 degrees. Try to remove most of the dead foliage as you can before bagging the root plugs for storage. Store them on plastic bags to ensure the roots do not dry out.
Storage Duration: Approximately 4 to 6 months. Plugs may be shipped at any time as long as the receiver has cold storage.
Length of Storage: 4 to 6 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Illinois prairie sites to include State Parks, highway roadsides, and limited private lands. Prefers dry prairies.
Outplanting Date: September to November

Horvath, David J.; Blessman, Gary.; Flood, Roberta Mountz. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Coreopsis lanceolata L. plants (1+0 container plugs); Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery, Topeka, Illinois. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 3 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.

Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741

Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Aster Family
Scientific Name: Coreopsis lanceolata
Common Name: Lance-leaf coreopsis
Species Code: CORLAN
Ecotype: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
General Distribution: Dry sandy soils from Michigan and Lake Superior to Florida and New Mexico.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Plug + (container-field grown hybrids)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container plug.
Height: About 4-6” after cutbacks.
Root System: Full, firm plug.
Propagule Collection: Collected at Cumberland Gap National Park, Kentucky Portal by National Plant Materials Center staff in 10/90.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed heads were harvested from The National Plant Materials Center seed production block in July with a combine. Previously shattered seed was swept up off of the weed mat and added to the lot. The seed was cleaned by running it first through a large clipper, using screen sizes 7 and 12, with air set on high-medium. It was then run through a debearder to break up remaining leaves and stems and finally processed again through the large clipper using the same screen sizes.
Seeds/Kg: Approximately 1,000,000.
Germination: 1999 seed tested at 71% and produced 131 plugs per gram in fall, 2000. 1996 seed produced 63 and 51 plugs per gram of seed in 1998 and 1999 respectively.
Purity: 92% (1999).
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Have tried stratifying seeded trays for 3 weeks with no appreciable change in % germination.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand sown.
Container Type and Volume: 406 cell germination plug trays and Ropak multipots (67 cell).
Growing Media: Sunshine #1 potting mix plus 180 day 18-6-8 Nutricote SR with micronutrients added at 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of mix (0.15 lb./cu. ft.).
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: January for spring outplanting; July for fall. In the future at the National Plant Materials Center, plugs for fall planting will be started in mid-June.
% Emergence and Date: Overall germination was estimated at 19% of seeds sown. 50% of those had germinated in 11 days, the balance in 28 days.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seed was hand sown at approximately 3-6 seeds per cell directly into multipots filled with the Sunshine mix. Seeds were lightly covered with germination mix, watered, covered with clear plastic, and put on a greenhouse bench. Plastic was removed after about 10 days. About 70% of the multipot cells germinated. A 406 germination tray was started at the same time, and empty multipot cells were plugged with seedlings from this tray.
Establishment Phase: No special needs.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: It appears that maturation of the root mass may be slowed by prolonged cloudy weather in summer. Plugs were fertilized as needed with Technigro 16-17-17 at low rates (100 ppm). Plugs were cut back 2-3 times to encourage development of uniform foliage and full root mass. Cutbacks also controlled aphids and other greenhouse pests.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: 2-3 weeks prior to outplanting, greenhouse temperatures are reduced or plugs are moved outdoors and fertilization is stopped.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 14 weeks from germination to finished plug in spring, 1999; 17 weeks in fall, 2000. (Slower maturation may have resulted from lowered solar radiation, as summer 2000 was unseasonably cool and cloudy.)
Harvest Date: Park outplanting is done in spring. At National Plant Materials Center fields are plugged in the fall (October). Seed is harvested from National Plant Materials Center seed production beds in July.
Storage Conditions: Overwintering plugs in cool storage will be attempted this year (December – April).
Seed storage: Seed is stored in seed bag in cooler at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: None indicated.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, National Plant Materials Center seed production fields.
Outplanting Date: Fall (October at National Plant Materials Center), Spring.
Other Comments: This year at National Plant Materials Center we noticed die-back in spring-planted plugs after their first season of bloom. This will require further observation to determine if time of planting (spring or fall) is the cause. Coreopsis will spread from the original clump which often dies back in the center. After senescence in the fall, stems are brittle and if handled roughly may sever the crown. Best to cut back dead foliage with pruners. Plant may not be long-lived.
References: Gleason, H. and A. Cronquist. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. 1991. New York Botanical Garden. Pg. 538.

Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of plug + transplants of Coreopsis lanceolata plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 3 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855

Family Scientific Name: Compositae
Family Common Name: Aster family
Scientific Name: Coreopsis lanceolata L.
Common Name: Lanceleaf coreopsis/Tickseed
Species Code: CORLAN
General Distribution: Full sun to light shade. Dry to somewhat moist sites. Sandy to rocky soils. Shorelines, alvar, openings. Bright yellow flowers. Plant height 8" to 3'. Foliage luxuriant.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants in the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Flowers from early July through September. Seed is a small black achene and is harvested throughout the summer, the majority in August-September.
Propagule Processing: Ripe seed can be lightly tapped from the seed head. An individual flower's seed varies in time of ripening so one flower's seed could be harvested several times. Seed is not cleaned. Dry seeds or 1-2 weeks in open paper bags or open Rubbermaid-style bins, shaking or turning seed. Once seeds have dried, store in sealed Ziploc-style bags or Rubbermaid-style bins. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Pre-Planting Treatments: None are used. Seed readily germinates.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse made of standard U.V. 3HL Clear 6 mil from (J.R. Johnson's Greehouse Supply Inc.). Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months for cooling. Container Type: Grows best in deep cell plug trays; 100 cell (1"-1/2" diameter), 18"x12"x6.5" deep. Growing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Add enough water to the soil to saturate. Mix soil with a trowel. Cover the holes in the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper, as the soil will fall through. Fill cells with damp soil and press down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Thoroughly moisten soil in the plug cells, but do not saturate. Sow seeds by hand at a rate of about 3 seeds in each cell. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press the seeds into the dirt. Sow February until late July.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. thru Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistenly damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffused sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed, leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are out-planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season. Transplant if they outgrow initial containers.
Other Comments: Attracts bees and butterflies. Handles frost and drought well. Long bloom period. Provides luxuriant cover in a short amount of time. Reseeds very well in bare soil. Previous year's growth may be gently removed.

Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Coreopsis lanceolata L. plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 3 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.