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Protocol Information

David J. Horvath
Nursery Manager
Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery
17855 N. CR 2400E
Topeka, Illinois 61567
309-535-2185
309-535-3286
dhorvath@dnrmail.state.il.us


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower family
Scientific Name: Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom
Common Synonym: Aster novae-angliae L.
Common Name: New England Aster
Species Code: SYMNOV
Ecotype: Central Illinois, 650 feet msl elevation
General Distribution: S. novae-angliae ranges from New England states to North Dakota, south to New Mexico and Alabama.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Bareroot (field grown)
Stock Type: 1+0 container plugs
Target Specifications: Height: n/a, herbaceous perennial.
Caliper: n/a, herbaceous perennial.
Root System: firm root plug for the greenhouse crop and a healthy bareroot system for the field grown crop.
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by a custom designed combine from nursery stock. The plant flowers from approx. July 1 to August 30. Seed is harvested about September 15.
Propagule Processing: After drying, seed is cleaned by hand to remove large trash. It is then run through the Debearder. Using the middle size screen, feed the Debearder slowly and cover the end of the hopper to control dust. Set the brushes out 1/4 inch from the center and ensure seed is not getting damaged. Next, run the good seed through the Clipper with a top screen of 1/12 and a bottom screen of 1/25. Run this seed over the Forsberg Gravity Seed Table. Finally, take the good seed once more through the Clipper with a top screen of 1/12 and a bottom screen of 1/17. Seed may be run through the Jesse Aspirator, with both vents wide open, being careful to check the dust bags for pure, live, seed.
Pre-Planting Treatments: 8 ounces of seed is saved to sow one bench in either 64 flats of the Multipot #6, or 24 flats of the Multipot #3 or #4.
Seed is damp stratified by mixing it with equal amounts of vermiculite and lightly dampening in a plastic bag or container.
Store this seed for 3-4 months in a cold room of 34-36 degrees F.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Fully controlled greenhouse and field grown in beds.
Container Type and Volume: Multipot #3, #4, or #6 are used. Cell volumes are 6 cubic inches, 9 cu. in. and 6 cu. in. respectively.
Growing Media: Sterile, Pro-Mix PGX. Add vermiculite and perlite at a 10:1 ratio. Mix in 5 ounces of Osmocote, slow release fertilizer, 17-6-10, per cubic foot of soil. Ensure flats are tapped down to prevent settling.
Total Time to Harvest: 7-11 months, depending on weather and plant/root development.
Sowing Date: Three crops are started in the greenhouse with the first in late December and the last no later than the end of March.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Sow the seeds by hand by broadcasting. Try to sprinkle 3-5 seeds per cell. Seed purity rates vary from year to year. Thus, it is easier to thin than to transplant. Cover the seeds to one times their depth with the same growing media. Use a dibble board or roller to gently press seed and cover soil in the cell.
Establishment Phase: Set the greenhouse temperatures to be 70-80 degrees during the day, and 65-75 degrees at night.
75% germination is reached in about one to two weeks. Plants must be watered by hand during germination. Set the hose on gentle shower to prevent seeds from splashing out.
Active Growth Phase: Once germination is successful, the greenhouse temperature may be turned down gradually depending on outside temperatures. Plants are irrigated in the morning by soaking for 20 to 30 minutes. This allows the foliage to dry out during the day. Once true leaves appear, not cotyledons, the plants may be fertilized. Start with 50 ppm of Rapid Grow or Peter's Liquid Fertilizer once a week. This rate is increased to 200 ppm gradually, and, again, decreased to 50 ppm before moving the plants outside to the shadehouse. It is important to rinse fertilizer residue off the foliage by running the irrigation for 30 seconds. Plants should be thinned to 2 plants per cell. This should be accomplished before the roots are too extensive. Weed the flats when they are being thinned. When foliage reaches 8 to 10 inches, the plants need to be pruned back to 3 or 4 inches. This is accomplished by turning the flats on their sides and cutting with scissors or sheers. Make sure the clippings are all removed from the flats to prevent disease spread.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8 months
Hardening Phase: The first greenhouse crop will be moved to a hoop house in late January to February. To acclimate the plants, the irrigation rate is reduced to 50 ppm before moving and greenhouse temperatures are decreased to 55-60 degrees day. The second and third crops are moved directly to the shadehouse in April and May. Again, greenhouse controls and fertilization rates are adjusted in preparation for the move. Plants that reach 8-10 inches in the shadehouse will require pruning also.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Flats may be unplugged in October or November as long as most of the tops have died down.
Storage Conditions: Plugs that are not shipped during this fall's planting season may be stored for spring planting in cold rooms above freezing, preferably 40-50 degrees. Try to remove as much of the dead foliage as you can before bagging the root plugs for storage. Store them in plastic bags to ensure the roots do not dry out.
Storage Duration: Approximately 4 to 6 months. Plugs may be shipped at any time as long as the receiver has cold storage.
Length of Storage: 4 to 6 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Illinois prairie sites to include State Parks, highway roadsides, and limited private lands. Prefers mesic prairies.
Outplanting Date: September to November or April to May

Citation:
Horvath, David J.; Blessman, Gary.; Flood, Roberta Mountz. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of field-grown Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom plants (1+0 container plugs); Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery, Topeka, Illinois. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 26 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

David J. Horvath
Nursery Manager
Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery
17855 N. CR 2400E
Topeka, Illinois 61567
309-535-2185
309-535-3286
dhorvath@dnrmail.state.il.us


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower family
Scientific Name: Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom
Common Synonym: Aster novae-angliae L.
Common Name: New England Aster
Species Code: SYMNOV
Ecotype: Illinois
General Distribution: S. nova-angliae is commonly found throught the Midwestern and eastern United States.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Bareroot (field grown)
Stock Type: Bareoot seedlings
Target Specifications: Height: N/A
Caliper: N/A
Root System: Well developed root system for field grown plants.
Propagule Collection: Source of Propagules: Seed is collected with a custom designed combine from nursery stock.
The plant flowers from approx. the beginning of July to the end of August. Seed is harvested the middle of September
Propagule Processing: Pretreatments: After drying, seed is cleaned first by hand to remove large trash. Then, it is run through the Debearder. Use the middle screen size for the Debearder, feed slowly, and cover the end of the hopper to control dust. Set the brushes out 1/4 inch out from the center and check to make sure seed is not getting damaged. Next, take the seed to the Clipper using a top screen of 1/12 and a bottom screen of 1/25. Run the good seed over the Forsberg Gravity Table. Then one more time through the Clipper. Use a top screen of 1/12 and a bottom screen of 1/17. Seed may be run through the Jesse Aspirator, with both vents wide open, being careful to check the dust bags for pure, live seed.
Seed can be cleaned to 88% purity with 62,500 seeds per ounce.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Field seed is planted in the fall, therefore, is not put into cold storage. If unable to plant in the fall due to weather, store the seed dry in cold storage at 34-36 degrees F.
Field seed is not damp stratified due to clumping during the drilling process.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Bareroot field beds.
Field grown seed is drilled in 3 or 4 foot wide, raised beds, consisting of a sandy loam.
Field grown seed is drilled with the Love Seeder at a rate of 0.8 ounces per 45 linear feet. Adjust the drill heights so that the seed is covered only 1 times its depth. The beds should be hydroseeded with a cool-season, annual grass to protect seed over the winter months.
Active Growth Phase: Field grown plants are topdressed twice, once in May and once in June with 13-13-13 at a rate of 200 lbs. Per acre. The fertilizer is irrigated in after application. Irrigation is run once or twice a week, depending on weather, and run for one to two hours.
Hardening Phase: For field grown plants, reduce irrigation to slow the vegetative growth down in the fall.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Storage Conditions: Plants that are not shipped during this fall's planting season may be stored for spring planting in cold rooms above freezing, preferably 40-50 degrees. Try to remove as much of the dead foliage as you can before bagging the root plugs for storage. Store them in plastic bags to ensure the roots do not dry out. Depending on weather conditions, field grown plants may be lifted and shipped in the fall. However, time and labor may require spring shipment. Field grown stock is also stored in cool, dry storage, above freezing. Again, remove dead vegetation in the culling process, and place the plants in plastic-lined bags. Do not allow root systems to dry out.
Storage Duration: Approximately 4 to 6 months. Plugs and field grown bareroot plants may be shipped at any time as long as the receiver has cold storage.
Length of Storage: 4 to 6 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Illinois prairie sites to include State Parks, highway roadsides, and limited private lands. Prefers moist or dry prairies.
Outplanting Date: September to November or April to May

Citation:
Flood, Roberta Mountz; Horvath, David J.; Blessman, Gary. 2007. Propagation protocol for production of field-grown Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom plants (Bareoot seedlings); Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery, Topeka, Illinois. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 26 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Compositae
Family Common Name: Aster Family
Scientific Name: Symphyotrichum novae-angliae L.
Common Name: New England aster
Species Code: SYMNOV
General Distribution: Open, usually moist to wet ground, including shores, meadows, fields, shrubby swamps, fens, wet praries, edge of streams and rivers. Weedy in habit. Ray color varies from blue to purple, occasionally rose.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants in the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Flowers Aug.-Sept. Seed is an achene and is harvested from October to November.
Propagule Processing: Dry seeds for 1-2 weeks in open paper bags or open Rubbermaid-style bins, shaking or turning seed heads. Seed is not cleaned. Once seeds have dried begin stratification.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Stratification: Mix the seeds with an equal amount of moist perlite or vermiculite in a sealable plastic bag or Rubbermaid-style container. Seal and put in a refrigerator or garage (35 to 42 degrees F) for 1-2 months. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3 HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.). Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months for cooling. Container Type: grows best in 24 cell (2"diameter) 14"x8.5"x4" deep flats and other flats with 2" diameter or more and depths of 4" or more. Sowing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water, mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover the holes in the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper so that the soil does not fall out. Fill cells with damp soil and press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the plug cells again. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 1 seed in each small cell and 2 seeds in each cell with a diameter greater than 2.5". Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press the seeds into the dirt. Sow year-round due to unpredictable germination.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passes leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: May be difficult to discern locally native from adventive individuals as species is widely planted as an ornamental.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Symphyotrichum novae-angliae L. plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 26 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.