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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine family
Scientific Name: Pseudotsuga menziesii (Beissn.) Franco glauca
Common Name: Douglas-fir
Species Code: PSEMEN
Ecotype: Spruce/ Fir forest, West Glacier, Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.,1100m elevation.
General Distribution: P. menziesii var. glauca occurs primarily in the Rocky Mountains from southeastern B.C. and Alberta south to northern and central Mexico, but also in eastern Washington, Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 15 cm
Caliper: 5 mm
Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Cones are collected in September when cones turn tan and scales begin to reflex in early fall. Mature seeds are firm and brown in color. Cones from younger trees are reported to produce larger cones with greater seed viability than trees over 100 to 200 years in age. Cones are collected using pruning poles to cut branches from trees. Cones are collected in burlap sacks and spread on a canvas tarp in a well vetiliated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Cones are air dried and tumbled to extract the seeds and dewinged.
Seed Storage is up to 20 years at 0C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy for seed sources in the Pacific Northwest.
Seeds are reported to be non-dormant from the central and southern portions of its range.
Seeds/Kg: 200,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 70 to 82%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Prechilling the seeds and pre soaking increases germination energy. Seeds are placed into a 1:3 (v:v) 3%hydrogen peroxide/ water soak for 10 minutes. Seeds are then placed into a 48 hour running water rinse, followed by a 30 to 45 day cold, moist stratification at 3C.
Seeds are placed into fine mesh bags and buried in milled moist sphagnum peat moss in a well ventilated container.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
After moving them to the outdoor nursery, seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept evenly moist (but not saturated)during germination. Germination continues for 21 days after sowing. Seedlings are thinned at the birdcage stage. Seedlings shed the seedcoats 7 to 10 days after emergence.
After seedlings are well established, they must dry down slightly between irrigations. This practice prevents the incidence of post-emergence damping-off disease and other root diseases.
Length of Establishment Phase: 3 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings were fertilized with 25-10-10 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during the growing season. Seedlings should be inoculated with mycorrhizae (Rhizopogon vinicolor) at the accelerated growth stage, which is usually reached by week 8.
Plants were fully root tight 25 weeks after germination and averaged 10 cm in height.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 22 weeks
Hardening Phase: Seedlings are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm in August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are leached with clear water once before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 9 months
Harvest Date: October
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: 3 L (1 gallon) containers of P. menziesii can be produced in 2 years; with trees averaging 17 cm in height and 9 mm in caliper.
Vegetative Propagation Method: Yes, not tried. Cuttings taken from 10 to 12 year old sheared stock trees in December and January, using 5000 ppm IBA, sand, peat media with bottom heat, 50F air temperature maintained, and 16 hr days. Rootability varies widely between clones.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation, Dirr and Heuser, Varsity Press, 1987.

Seeds of Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.  

Citation:
Hosokawa, Joy; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff.; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Pseudotsuga menziesii (Beissn.) Franco glauca plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Rae Watson
Forestry Technician
USDA FS - J Herbert Stone Nursery
2606 Old Stage Rd.
Central Point, Oregon 97537
541.858.6131
541.858.6110
rewatson@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine family
Scientific Name: Pseudotsuga menziesii menziesii
Common Name: Douglas-fir
Species Code: Psemen
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Bareroot (field grown)
Stock Type: 2+0
Time To Grow: 22 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 15 to 45 cm (6 to 18 inches).
Caliper: >4mm
Root system must balance top growth. No mechanical damage on the main stem. Cranberry girdler damage acceptable if less than 0.6 cm (1/4 in).
Propagule Collection: Most seed comes from wild collections, with the remainder coming from seed orchards managed by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management. All seed is kept separate by the collection area, elevation and date collected. All seed is collected or contracted for collection by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management or other government agencies. All seed is collected in the fall and is sent to Bend Pine Extractory for cleaning.
Propagule Processing: The seed is dried to between 5 and 8% moisture and placed in air tight plastic bags, then stored in freezers set at -15C (5F). This seed has a long storage life under these conditions.
Seeds/Kg: 16,000 to 20,000 seeds/kg (35,000 to 45,000 seeds/lb)
Germination: 80-90%
Purity:>95%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed is placed in mesh bags and soaked in cold running water for 48 hours. The seed is then laid out 3cm (1in) thick on trays with fine screen meshed bottoms and placed in cold stratification rooms for 60-80 days. Rooms are equipped with foggers to keep the naked seed moist at all times (seed covered with free moisture). Temperatures are set at 1C (33F). Seed is monitored daily to detect seed mold. If mold is found, the seed is hosed down with water.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Nursery soils are a sandy loam (Central Point Sandy Loam Soil Series-Coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic Pachic Haploxeroll). Nine months before sowing, in late spring, 2.5cm (1in) of fresh sawdust is applied and disked into the surface. During summer, the fields are irrigated to encourage weeds to sprout. The fields are disked at regular intervals to keep them free of weeds. The addition of sawdust, weed free fields and early sow of seed keeps the incidence of disease and weeds to minimum and this is the reason we will not be fumigating our fields this year. We wil however, be using a pre-emergence herbicide. Soils are formed into 1.2m (4ft.) wide raised beds separated by a 0.6m (2ft) tractor path. There are six beds between irrigation pipelines.
Establishment Phase: The seed is sown in late March to early April. The seed is sown through a modified Oyjard seed drill. Seed is sown for an initial density of 244 to 277 seedlings/m2 (22 to 25 seedlings/ft2). Attached to the front of the seed drill is a fertilizer bander. Depending on our soil analysis the bander places 500 kg/ha (450 lb/ac) of potassium sulfate (0-0-53) and 400 kg/ha (360 lb/ac) of ammonium phospate (11-52-0) is placed at a depth in the soil of 10cm (4in). The seed drill has been adapted by attaching 8 steel bands to the drum. The bands are 3cm (11/4in) side by 1cm(3/8in) deep and 15cm (6in) apart. As it rolls in front of the seeder, the band creates a small impression for the seed to drop into. The tubes of the seed drill have been increased in size to allow large seed to pass through and drop directly into the impressions. Behind the seed tubes are small wheels that press the seed into the surface of the soil. Within a half hour of sowing, the seed is covered with 1cm to 1.3cm(3/8 to 1/2in) of fresh (undecomposed) sawdust. The sawdust is sprayed with Agrilock at 15% solution to hold it in place in case of high winds. Then the seedbeds are sprayed with Goal (oxyfluorfen) at 2 pints per acre as a pre-emergent control for weeds. Seedbeds are irrigated when the seed appears to be drying out. This occurs only on warm days. There is no fertilization during this period.
Active Growth Phase: First growing season.

Irrigation: Soil tensiometers are placed at 15cm (6in) depths and monitored at least once per week. Soils are irrigated to 30cm (12in) when tensions are at -0.5 or higher. Light (5 minute) bursts of irrigation are given when surface soil temperatures (temperature probe placed under a 1/4 inch of soil) are 33C (91F)in June; 35C (95F) in July; 38C (100F)in early August and 40C (104F) in mid August.

Fertilizer: Fertilizer is applied in granular form over the seedlings. After application is complete, the fertilizer is washed off the foliage and into the soil with a half hour of irrigation water. Four applications are made: Approximately 6 weeks after emergence, 56kg/ha (50lbs/ac) of ammonium nitrate is applied when lateral roots have developed from new germinants. 8 weeks after emergence - 84 kg/ha (75 lbs/ac) of ammonium nitrate. 10 weeks after emergence - 134 kg/ha (120 lbs/ac) ammonium sulfate and 12 weeks after emergence - 112 ka/ha (100 lbs/ac) of ammonium nitrate.

IPM: Handweeding of beds if necessary.

Second growing season:

Irrigation: Starting last week in March, irrigate soil profile when soil tension is -0.3 bars. Irrigate to cool seedlings when foliar temperatures reach 32C (90F) from April to mid June, 35C 95F from mid June throught July, 38C (100F) early August and 40C (104F) from late August on.

Fertilizer: The first application of ammonium nitrate at 168 kg/ha (150 lbs/ac) is applied two weeks before bud break (end of March). Two weeks later 225 kg/ha (200 lbs/ac) of ammonium sulfate is applied and followed two weeks later with 84 kg/ha (75 lbs/ac) of ammonium nitrate. IPM:Hand weeding. If Crysoteuchia topiaria (cranberry girdler) exceeds threshold (which does not happen every year) then the bug vacuum is used to reduce the moth population. If the populations are still high, then pydin at 5.3oz/ac is used to control the moths. If high levels of seedling damage is detected in the summer months, then an application of Dursban wil be considered. Prunes and wrenches: Vertically pruned in the spring to 15cm (6in) and immediately wrenched at 30cm (12cm). 4 to 6 wrenches during the growing season. Top prune seedlings at 30cm (12in) when 15 percent of the seedlings are at or above 30cm (12in). Top prune a second time at 43cm (17in) when 10 percent of the seedlings are at or above 43cmm (17in).

Hardening Phase: First growing season:

By the third week in August or when the seedlings have reached 9cm (3.5in) high, induce dormancy.
Irrigation: Only irrigate when the surface temperatures exceed 38C (100F) or pre-dawn plant moisture stress (PMS) exceeds 10 bars. In the early fall the soil profile is completely moistened and plants are kept below 5 bars pre-dawn PMS. From October through the early portion of November, the seedlings are protected from frosts through irrigation.
Fertilizer: No fertilizations
IPM: Handweed beds if needed.
Prunes and wrenches: Seedlings are horizontally pruned at 15cm (6in) in September and immdiately wrenched at 30cm (12in).

Second growing season:

When 80 percent of the seedlings reach 25cm (10in), dormancy is induced.
Irrigation: Starting in June irrigate soil profile when pre-dawn PMS is 12 bars. In mid September, the soil profile is irrigated. From that point forward, the profile is irrigated when tensiometers read -0.3 to -0.5 bars.
Fertilizer: No fertilzations
IPM: Handweed beds if needed.
Prunes and wrenches: Wrenched at 30cm (12in) in mid September for root growth.

Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Lifting window is January through early February. Seedlings are hand-lifted after the seedling beds have been undercut using a Lundeby lifter. Lifting conditions must be in unsaturated soils, PMS below 15 bars and temperature above -3C 27F). Seedlings are stored at 1C (33F) and 100 percent humidity for 1 to 5 days before sorting. Sorting removes seedlings that do not meet target specifications (see above). Many clients ask for seedlings to be rootpruned between 23 and 30cm (9 and 12in) for planting reasons. We accomplish this with paper cutters. At client request, we will place a rubber band around a group of seedlings, usually 25. Seedlings are placed in 3 ply bags and sown shut. the bags are placed on racks and stored in coolers at 1C (33F) for storage durations less than 2 months or in freezers at -1C (29F) for greater than 2 months.
References: Schopmeyer C.S. 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants I the United States. Ag Handbook 450. USDA Forest Service.

Duryea M.L., Landis T.D. 1984. Forest Nursery Manual: Production of Bareroot Seedlings. Martius Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers, the Hague Boston/Lancaster, Forest Research Lab, OSU Corvallis. 386p.

Citation:
Steinfeld, David E 2001. Propagation protocol for production of field-grown Pseudotsuga menziesii menziesii plants (2+0 ); USDA FS - J Herbert Stone Nursery, Central Point, Oregon. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Rae Watson
Forestry Technician
USDA FS - J Herbert Stone Nursery
2606 Old Stage Rd.
Central Point, Oregon 97537
541.858.6131
541.858.6110
rewatson@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Scientific Name: Pseudotsuga menziesii menziesii
Common Name: Douglas-fir
Species Code: Psemen
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Bareroot (field grown)
Stock Type: 1+0
Time To Grow: 10 Months
Target Specifications: Minimum height is 4 inches and minimum caliper is 3mm. Target height is 7 inches.
Propagule Collection: Most seed comes from wild collections, with the remainder coming from seed orchards managed by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management. All seed is kept separate by the collection area, elevation and date collected. All seed is collected or contracted for collection by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management or other government agencies. All seed is collected in the fall.
Propagule Processing: Seed is sent to Bend Pine Extractory in the fall for cleaning. It is dried to between 5 and 8% moisture and placed in air tight plastic bags, then stored in seed freezers set at -15C (5F) at the nursery. This seed has a long storage life under these conditions.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed is placed in mesh bags and soaked in cold running water for 48 hour. The seed is then laid out 3cm (1 in) thick on trays with fine screen meshed bottoms and placed in cold stratification rooms for 30 to 45 days. Rooms are equipped with foggers to keep the naked seed moist at all times (seed covered with free moisture). Temperatures are set at 1C (33F). Seed is monitored daily to detect seed mold. If mold is found, the seed is hosed down with water.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

The climate of the Rogue Valley is dry, warm and sunny from late spring to early fall. High temperatures in the summer months average slightly below 32C (90F), with extremes occasionally over 40C (105F). Winters are cool and moist. January is the coldest month with an average daily temperature of 4C (39F). Valley fog is prevalent from mid November through late February, making condition for lifting seedlings very favorable. Annual precipitation is 45cm (18in), with over 80 percent of this falling as rain between October and April.
Establishment Phase: Seeds are the first to be sown at the nursery (mid-March). Seed is sown through a modified Oyjard seed drill. Seed is sown for an initial seedling density of 215 seedlings/m2 (20 seedlings/ft2). Attached to the front of the seed drill is a fertilizer bander. Depending on our soil analysis the bander places 500 kg/ha (450 lb/ac) of potassium sulfate (0-0-53) and 400 kg/ha (360 lb/ac) of ammonium phosphate (11-52-0) is placed at a depth in the soil of10cm (4in). The seed drill has been adapted by attaching 8 steel bands to the drum. The bands are 3cm (1¼ in) wide by 1cm (3/8in) deep and 15cm (6 in) apart. As it rolls in front of the seeder, the band creates a small impression for the seed to drop into. The tubes of the seed drill have been increased in size to allow large seed to pass through and drop directly into the impressions. Behind the seed tubes are small wheels that press the seed into the surface of the soil. Within a half hour of sowing, and then covered with 1cm to 1.3cm (3/8 to ½ in) of fresh (undecomposed) sawdust. The sawdust is sprayed with Agrilock at 15% solution to hold it in place in case of high winds. Then the seedbeds are sprayed with Goal (oxyfluorfen) at 2 pints per acre as a pre-emergent control for weeds.The seedbeds are irrigated when the seed appears to be drying out. This occurs only on warm days. There is no fertilization during this period.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Irrigation: Soil tensiometers are placed at 15cm (6in) depths and monitored at least once per week. Soils are irrigate to 30cm (12in) when tensions are at -0.2 or higher. Light (5 minute) bursts of irrigation are given when surface soil temperatures (temperature probe placed under a ¼ inch of soil) are 33C (91F) in June; 35C (95F) in July; 38C (100F) in early August and 40C (104F) in mid August. Fertilizer: Fertilizer is applied in granular form over the seedlings. After application is complete, the fertilizer is washed off the foliage and into the soil with a half hour of irrigation water. Four applications are made: Approximately 6 weeks after emergence, 56 kg/ha (50 lbs/ac) of ammonium nitrate is applied when lateral roots have developed from new germinants. 8 weeks after emergence – 84 kg/ha (75 lbs/ac of ammonium nitrate. 10 weeks after emergence – 181 kg/ha (162 lbs/ac) ammonium sulfate, 12 weeks after emergence – 140 kg/ha (125 lbs/ac) of ammonium nitrate and 14 weeks after emergence – 168 kg/ha(150 lbs/ac) of ammonium nitrate. IPM: Handweeding of beds if necessary. If lygus insect found to damage buds, utilize mechanical insect control (Bug suck vacuum) and isecticide (Pydrin) at 10 day intervals until damage from insect no longer observed.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 4 months
Hardening Phase: By the third week in August or when the seedlings dormancy is induced.Irrigation: Only irrigate when the surface temperatures exceed 38C (100F) or pre-dawn plant moisture stress (PMS) exceeds 10 bars. In the early fall the soil profile is completely moistened and plants are kept below 5 bars pre-dawn PMS. From October through the early portion of November, the seedlings are protected from frosts through irrigation. Fertilizer: Two applications applied two weeks apart of112 kg/ha (100 lbs/ac) of ammonium sulfate. This is applied in mid-fall after bud set.IPM: Handweed beds if needed. Prunes and wrenches: Wrench at 12 inches in late August to enhance fall root activity. Vertical prune in October.
Length of Hardening Phase: 2 months
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: By the third week in August or when the seedlings dormancy is induced. Irrigation: Only irrigate when the surface temperatures exceed 38C (100F) or pre-dawn plant moisture stress (PMS) exceeds 10 bars. In the early fall the soil profile is completely moistened and plants are kept below 5 bars pre-dawn PMS. From October through the early portion of November, the seedlings are protected from frosts through irrigation. Fertilizer: Two applications applied two weeks apart of112 kg/ha (100 lbs/ac) of ammonium sulfate. This is applied in mid-fall after bud set. IPM: Handweed beds if needed. Prunes and wrenches: No prunes or wrenches.
Length of Storage: up to 3 months
Other Comments: The seedlots from Washington and northern Oregon, perform better than seedlings from Northern California and Southern Oregon. We discourage clients from growing much in this stocktype for that reason.
References: Schopmeyer C.S. 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants I the United States. Ag Handbook 450. USDA Forest Service.

Duryea M.L., Landis T.D. 1984. Forest Nursery Manual: Production of Bareroot Seedlings. Martius Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers, the Hague Boston/Lancaster, Forest Research Lab, OSU Corvallis. 386p.

Citation:
Steinfeld, David E 2004. Propagation protocol for production of field-grown Pseudotsuga menziesii menziesii plants (1+0); USDA FS - J Herbert Stone Nursery, Central Point, Oregon. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine family
Scientific Name: Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirabl.) Franco
Common Name: Douglas-fir
Species Code: PSEMEN
General Distribution: P. menziesii is found from Britiah Columbia and Alberta south to Mexico and along the Pacific coast to central California in the coast and Sierran ranges.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seed dormancy is physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 0 to 120 days, 28 days. Germination occurs at 20 C and 30D/20N C alternating temperature cycle. Germination was greater in light than dark.
References: Allen, G. S. (1958). Factors affecting the viability and germination behavior of coniferous seed. II. Cone and seed maturity, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. For. Chron. 34, 275-282.
Richardson, S. D. (1959). Germination of Douglas-fir seed as affected by light, temperature, and gibberellic acid. For. Sci. 5, 174-181.
Li, X. J., Burton, P. J. and Leadem, C. L. (1994). Interactive effects of light and stratification on the germination of some British Columbia conifers. Can J. Bot. 72, 1635-1646.
Table 10.35 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirabl.) Franco plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.