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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Scrophulariaceae
Family Common Name: Figwort family
Scientific Name: Penstemon procerus Dougl.
Common Name: Small-flowered penstemon
Species Code: PENPRO
Ecotype: Fescue grassland, 1585m elev. Rising Sun,
General Distribution: P. procerus occurs from grassland foothills to subalpine zones, in mostly moister habitats. It is widespread throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 4 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 6 cm, 6 to 10 true leaves
Caliper: n/a
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in late August when capsules turn brown and begin to dehisce. Seed is brown at maturity and is collected in paper bags that are kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with screens and an air blower at NRCS.
Seed longevity is at least 5 years at 1 to 3C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 4,600,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 50%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 30 to 90 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are lightly covered with medium. Germination occurs at 21C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor Nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seed is covered with medium and irrigated thoroughly.
Growing media used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings emerge 5 days after sowing. Germination was very uniform under greenhouse conditions. True leaves appeared 2 weeks after germination. Once established and thinned after emergence, the seedlings produce rapid shoot and root development.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm. Plants were root tight 9 weeks following germination. Plants did not produce flowers the first year.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 9 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm in fall, pots are flushed with water, and irrigation frequency is gradually reduced in September and October. One final irrigation is applied before covering for the winter.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 4 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow cover.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Rising Sun, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Spring or fall
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: No, not tried. Divisions of established nursery stock should be tried.
There are 4 botanical varieties: procerus, tolmei, formosus, and brachycanthus.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, Norman, publ. 1993.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, National Park Service and National Resources Conservation Service, April 1996.

Evans, Jeff; Luna, Tara.; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Penstemon procerus Dougl. plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.