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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Saxifragaceae
Family Common Name: Saxifrage family
Scientific Name: Mitella breweri Gray
Common Name: Brewer's mitrewort
Species Code: MITBRE
Ecotype: Subalpine fir understory, Logan Pass, 2032m elev. Glacier Co., Glacier National Park, MT.
General Distribution: M. breweri occurs from moist mountain valleys to treeline. It ranges from southern B.C. to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Idaho.

M. breweri is a rhizomatous perennial, which forms dense clumps along streambanks and in subalpine fir forests.

Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 5 cm, 6 to 10 true leaves.
Caliper: n/a
Root System: Firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in early fall when capsules turn brown and seeds begin to fall out of the saucer-shaped receptacle.
Seeds are shiny black at maturity.
Seeds are hand collected using scissors and paper bags.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with a hammermill and screens at NRCS.
Seeds cannot be ry stored for long periods of time.
Seed dormancy is classified as nondormant.
Seeds/Kg: 1,700,000/ kg approx.
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 100% using fresh seeds.
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month cold, moist stratification.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with a thin layer of grit.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification.
Seedlings germinate in spring under fluctuating outdoor temperatures and are grown under full sun exposure. Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings emerge in late spring. Germination was very uniform under spring time fluctuating temperatures.
True leaves appeared 3 weeks after germination. Once established and thinned after emergence, the seedlings produce rapid shoot and root development.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm and given frequent irrigation. Plants were root tight 12 weeks following germination. Plants were ready for outplanting at Logan Pass by late July.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK in fall, pots are flushed with water, and irrigation frequency is gradually reduced in September and October. One final irrigation is applied before covering for the winter.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 9 months
Harvest Date: July and August
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow cover.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Logan Pass, Glacier National Park.
Outplanting Date: July and August.
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Divisions of established nursery stock. This species is rhizomatous and divisions can easily be done if seeds are unavailable.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1973.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, Norman, publ. 1993.

Evans, Jeff; Luna, Tara.; Hosokawa, Joy.; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Mitella breweri Gray plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 4 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.