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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Salicaceae
Family Common Name: Willow Family
Scientific Name: Salix drummondiana Barratt.
Common Name: Drummond's willow 
Species Code: SALDRU
Ecotype: Subalpine streambank, Oberlin Bend, 2020m elev.,
General Distribution: S. drummondiana occurs in moist places to open slopes, from foothills to the subalpine; from B.C. and Alberta south to Sierran California, Nevada and Utah, south through the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico, and east across Canada and the northern U.S.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 3 L containers
Time To Grow: 1 Years
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container cutting
Height: 20 cm
Caliper: 6 mm
Root System: firm plug in 3L (1 gallon) containers.
Propagule Collection: Vegetative Propagation Method: Pre-Rooting
Type of Cutting: Spring hardwood or summer softwood stem cuttings.
Hardwood tip cuttings are collected before bud break. Softwood cuttings can be collected any time of year after flowering.
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept moist and under refrigeration prior to pre treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Cuttings are 15 to 20 cm in length and 7 mm in caliper. Cuttings were placed in a 2 minute fungicide bath to remove surface pathogens. Cuttings were treated with 1000 ppm liquid IBA, and struck in mist bed with at least 2 nodes below the surface of the rooting media.
Cuttings are grown in mistbed with bottom heat for 2 to 4 weeks.
Salix drummondiana is easily produced by cuttings.
Rooting %: 98% to 100%
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

The outdoor mistbed has automatic intermittent mist that is applied at 6 second intervals every 6 minutes. Too frequent misting will result in leaf and stem rot. Misting frequency is increased or decreased according to daily outdoor temperature and wind. Bottom heat is maintained at 21C with heating cables 12 cm beneath rooting media. Rooting media is 50% perlite and 50% sand. Mistbed is covered with shadecloth during rooting.
After cuttings are potted, they are moved to an outdoor shadehouse for 4 weeks. They are later moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery and are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Time to Transplant: 2 to 4 weeks.
Cuttings that were pre rooted were lifted out of mistbed after adequate root systems were formed. Roots generate from the nodes below the surface of the rooting media.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After cuttings were lifted from the mistbed, they were potted into 3L containers.
Growing media used is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S ,0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 4 grams of Osmocote and 2 grams of Micromax per container. Cuttings were irrigated after potting and placed in the shadehouse for 4 weeks.
After establishment in the shadehouse, plants were moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 1 year
Harvest Date: July
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: After snowmelt at high elevations.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1973.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, N. Deno, published June 1993.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Evans, Jeff; Hosokawa, Joy.; Luna, Tara.; Wick, Dale. 2001. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Salix drummondiana Barratt. plants (3 L containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 5 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.