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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass family
Scientific Name: Festuca idahoensis Elmer
Common Name: Idaho fescue
Species Code: FESIDA
Ecotype: Festuca idahoensis grassland, Rising Sun, Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT
General Distribution: F. idahoensis occurs in grasslands and sagebrush deserts to dry and rocky slopes and meadows; up to 4,000 m elevation in some areas. It ranges from B.C. to Alberta south through Washington and Oregon and Sierran California, and to Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, and Colorado. 
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 12 Weeks
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 10 to 20 true leaves, 10 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in mid to late August when florets turn papery and tan and seeds are easily shaken out of floret. Seeds can be hand stripped from the inflorescence just prior to shattering or the entire inflorescence can be cut using hand held sickles. Seeds are spread over an open tarp in the drying shed.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a huller at NRCS.
Seed Storage is estimated at 3 to 5 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 1,000,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 40%
Pre-Planting Treatments: None. Germination is reported to be higher in the presence of light. 3 year old seed was used. Fresh seeds must be cold, moist stratified or dry stored for 6 months prior to sowing.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor Nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds should be surface sown.
Growing medium used is 70% 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 30% sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Media is kept slightly moist during germination. Initial germination appeared uniform and occurred at 21C.
Length of Establishment Phase: 3 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Root and shoot development occurs rapidly following germination. 4 to 6 true leaves were evident 3 weeks after germination. Plants were fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK fertilizer during the growing season.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 7 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are leached with clear water before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 12 weeks
Harvest Date:June
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Saint Mary, Glacier National Park< MT.
Outplanting Date: September
Other Comments: F. idahoensis grows on a variety of soil types and is moderately drought tolerant. It is found from 100 meters in the Columbia River Basin to over 4,000 meters elevation in Colorado. It has fair tolerance of fall burning. It is important forage for deer and elk.
There are 2 botanical varieties, var. idahoensis, and var. oregona.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press,1973.

Growing Colorado plants From Seed: A State of the Art. Vol 2: Grasses, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NTIS General Technical Report, 1982.

Seeds: Ecology,Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, USDI and USDA, April 1996.

Glacier National Park Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Wick, Dale; Lapp, Joyce.; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Festuca idahoensis Elmer plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 27 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Mark E. Majerus
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center
99 South River Road, Rte. 2, Box 1189
Bridger, Montana 59014-9718
(406) 662-3579
(406) 662-3428
mmajerus@mt.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass
Scientific Name: Festuca idahoensis
Common Name: Idaho fescue
Species Code: FEID
Ecotype: See
General Distribution: Grassland and sagebrush desert to dry and rocky mountain slopes and meadows; British Columbia to Alberta, south to central California and Colorado.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Harvest yields vary due to weather and age of stand. Average annual production is 61 kg/ha (55 lb/ac).
Propagule Collection: Wildland collection occurs mid July to early August when caryopsis are light tan, at the hard dough stage, and not yet shattering (natural dispersal) from the narrow panicle; easily hand-harvested.

One collection hour/person will yield an average 846 grams (29.8 oz) clean seed (ranges 138 to 1,784 grams and varies by year, stand density, and collector experience).

Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed is spread out on a tarp in a dry, sheltered environment and turned daily for approximately 3-5 days, until no moisture or warmth is detected. After drying, material is processed with a Wintersteiger plot combine at concave 1/4 open, speed 900 rpm, and low wind. Seed is threshed with a hammermill through a 8/64” round hole screen, and air-screen processed on a Clipper M2B or Eclipse cleaner over a 7/64” round hole screen. Due to a smaller sized seed, absence of awns, fluff, or other seed debris, and reasonable seed flow, this species is relatively easy to clean. Larger seed lots are processed most efficiently with mechanized cleaning equipment, and smaller seed lots usually require more hand labor.
Seeds/Kg: 1,285,000.
Germination: 93%.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Seeds placed in 0-1ºC (32-34ºF) for a 10-day cold stratification treatment and then exposed to 22-25ºC (72-77ºF).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Seedbed is firm and free of weeds with good field moisture to 4” depth.
Seed Propagation Method: Direct seeding.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Spring or fall.
Sowing/Planting Technique: 25-30 pure live seed/ft (0.3 m) row, irrigated 91-cm (36- row spacing, seeded with two-row double-disk planter with depth bands, optimum seeding depth 0.6 cm (0.25 in).
Establishment Phase: Soil surface is kept moist throughout the 14 day germination and emergence period (also helps prevent soil crusting); lower rates of Buctril® or bromoxynil are applied at 3-5 leaf stage to control broadleaf weeds.

Fertilizer application is not recommended the first year, as it generally stimulates weed growth and competition.

Length of Establishment Phase: 2 growing seasons.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Spring to fall; broadleaf weed control with herbicides must occur prior to boot stage; soil moisture is critical during boot stage, milk stage of seed development, and post harvest to pre-freezeup--no irrigation is applied during flowering pollination); fertilizer is broadcast at 100 lbs actual N/40 lbs actual P/acre in mid-September.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 2 to 3 growing seasons.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Date Harvested: Cultivated harvest occurs early to mid July, with a mean harvest date of July 6 at the Bridger Plant Materials Center.

A John Deer swather is used to cut stems into windrows for direct combining, or, to minimize seed loss, a temporary “diaper”--a heavy piece of plastic or canvas clipped under belt draper--is attached for direct catchment.

Seed Storage: Seed is placed in plastic seed bags and stored in a cool, dry environment.
Seed Dormancy: Classified as physiological dormancy.

Length of Storage: Storage Duration: 5-7 years.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Sites: Big Prairie, Gunsight Pass Trailhead, St. Mary Flat, and Two Dog Flat.
Other Comments: Ecotype: 4 different Glacier National Park accessions periodically collected and produced from 1993 to 2000. Elevation ranges 1,097 m to 1,402 m (3,600 ft to 4,600 ft).
References: Manual of the Grasses of the United States, A. S. Hitchcock, Second Edition, Two Volumes, Dover Publications, Inc., 1970.

Flora of the Pacific Northwest, C. L. Hitchcock and A. Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, C. C. Baskin and J. M. Baskin, Academic Press, 2001.

Citation:
Winslow, Susan R. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Festuca idahoensis seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center, Bridger, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 27 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Mark E. Majerus
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center
99 South River Road, Rte. 2, Box 1189
Bridger, Montana 59014-9718
(406) 662-3579
(406) 662-3428
mmajerus@mt.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass
Scientific Name: Festuca idahoensis
Common Name: Idaho fescue
Species Code: FEID
Ecotype: See “Other Comments:”
General Distribution: Grassland and sagebrush desert to dry and rocky mountain slopes and meadows; British Columbia to Alberta, south to central California and Colorado.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Target Specifications: Harvest yields vary due to weather and age of stand. Average annual production is 33 kg/ha (29 lbs/ac).
Propagule Collection: Wildland collection occurs mid to late August when caryopsis are light tan, at the hard dough stage, and not yet shattering (natural dispersal) from the narrow panicle; easily hand-harvested.

One collection hour/person will yield an average 57 grams (1.9 oz) clean seed (ranges 18 to 129 grams and varies by year, stand density, and collector experience).

Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed is spread out on a tarp in a dry, sheltered environment and turned daily for approximately 3-5 days, until no moisture or warmth is detected. After drying, material is processed with a Wintersteiger plot combine at concave 1/4 open, speed 900 rpm, and low wind. Seed is threshed with a hammermill through a 8/64” round hole screen, and air-screen processed on a Clipper M2B or Eclipse cleaner over a 7/64” round hole screen. Due to a smaller sized seed, absence of awns, fluff, or other seed debris, and reasonable seed flow, this species is relatively easy to clean. Larger seed lots are processed most efficiently with mechanized cleaning equipment and smaller seed lots usually require more hand labor.
Seeds/Kg: 1,285,000.
Germination: 92%.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Seeds placed in 0-1ºC (32-34ºF) for a 10-day cold stratification treatment and then exposed to 22-25ºC (72-77ºF).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Seedbed is firm and free of weeds with good field moisture to 4” depth.
Seed Propagation Method: Direct seeding.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Spring or dormant fall.
Sowing/Planting Technique: 25-30 pure live seed/ft. (0.3 m) row, irrigated 91cm (36 in) row spacing, seeded with 2-row double-disk planter with depth bands, optimum seeding depth 0.6 cm (0.25 in).
Establishment Phase: Soil surface is kept moist throughout the 14 day germination and emergence period (also helps prevent soil crusting); lower rates of Buctryl or bromoxynil are applied at 3-5 leaf stage to control broadleaf weeds.

Fertilizer application is not recommended the first year, as it generally stimulates weed growth and competition.

Length of Establishment Phase: 2 growing seasons.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Spring to fall; broadleaf weed control with herbicides must occur prior to boot stage; soil moisture is critical during boot stage, milk stage of seed development, and post harvest to pre-freezeup – no irrigation is applied during flowering (pollination); fertilizer is broadcast at 100 lbs actual N/40 lbs actual P/acre in mid-September.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 2 to 3 growing seasons.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Cultivated harvest occurs late June to early July, with a mean harvest date of July 6 at the Bridger Plant Materials Center.

A John Deer swather is used to cut stems into windrows for direct combining, or, to minimize seed loss, a temporary “diaper”- a heavy piece of plastic or canvas clipped under belt draper – is attached for direct catchment.

Seed Storage: Seed is placed in plastic seed bags and stored in a cool, dry environment.
Seed Dormancy: Classified as physiological dormancy.

Length of Storage: Storage Duration: 5 to 7 years.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Sites: Mary’s Bay and Tower Junction to Northeast Entrance.
Other Comments: Ecotype: 2 different Yellowstone National Park accessions periodically collected and produced from 1990 to 2000. Ecological zones include silver sage/Idaho fescue grassland and Douglas fir forest. Elevation 2,103 m and 2,356 m (6,900 ft and 7,730 ft).
References: Manual of the Grasses of the United States, A. S. Hitchcock, Second Edition, Two Volumes, Dover Publications, Inc., 1970.

Flora of the Pacific Northwest, C. L. Hitchcock and A. Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Montana Interagency Plant Materials Handbook, Montana State University, Extension Service Bulletin EB 69, June 1990.

Yellowstone Vegetation – Consequences of Environment and History in a Natural Setting, Don G. Despain, Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1990.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, C. C. Baskin and J. M. Baskin, Academic Press, 2001.

Citation:
Winslow, Susan R. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Festuca idahoensis seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center, Bridger, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 27 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass family
Scientific Name: Festuca idahoensis Elmer
Common Name: Idaho fescue
Species Code: FESIDA
General Distribution: F. idahoensis is found from british columbia and Alberta south to California and Colorado.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seed dormancy is physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Germination occurs at 20D/15N C and 23/4 C alternating temperature cycle.
References: Young, J. A., Evans, R. A., Raguse, C. A. and Larson, J. R. (1981). Germinable seeds and periodicity of germination in annual grasslands. Hilgardia 49, 1-37.
Goodwin, J. R., Doescher, P. S. and Eddleman, L. E. (1996). Germination of Idaho fescue and cheatgrass seeds from coexisting populations. Northw. Sci. 70,: 230-241.
Table 10.28 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Festuca idahoensis Elmer plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 27 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.