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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass Family
Scientific Name: Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Gould spicata (Pursh ) A. Löve
Common Synonym: Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribn. & J.G. Sm.
Common Name: Bluebunch wheatgrass
Species Code: PSESPI
Ecotype: Festuca idahoensis grassland, Rising Sun, Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT.
General Distribution: P. spicata ssp. spicata is widespread east of the Cascades, Alaska to California, east to Alberta, the Dakotas, south throughout the western states to New Mexico. It grows from the plains to middle elevations in the mountains. It is the climax vegetation of many areas in the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain States, forming up to 60% over the grassland cover in many areas.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 12 Weeks
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedlings
Height: 10 to 20 true leaves, 25 cm.
Caliper: n/a
Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected when florets turn papery and tan. Seeds areis easily stripped out of floret in mid to late August.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a hammermill to remove awns at NRCS. It is important to remove awns or it slows sowing.
Seed Storage is estimated at 5 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 250,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 90%
Pre-Planting Treatments: None. Germination occurs at 21C. Germination is reported to be higher in the presence of light. 2 year old seed was used. Fresh seed should be stratified or dry stored for 6 months prior to sowing.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are lightly covered with media.
Growing media used is 70% 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat,perlite, and vermiculite and 30% sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Media is kept slightly moist during germination. Initial germination appeared uniform and occurred at 21C.
Length of Establishment Phase: 3 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Root and shoot development occurs rapidly following germination. 4 to 6 true leaves were evident 3 weeks after germination. Plants were fertilized with 13-13-13 liquid NPK fertilizer during the growing season. Some individuals flowered and set seed 3 months after germination.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 9 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are flushed with clear water once before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 2 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 12 weeks to root tightness
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: Fall
Other Comments: There are 2 botanical varieties, var. spicatum, and var. pubescens.
Bluebunch wheatgrass is an important forage for wildlife.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Growing Colorado Plants From Seed, A State of the Art. Vol. 2: Grasses, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NTIS General Technical Report, 1982.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Lapp, Joyce; Wick, Dale.; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Gould spicata (Pursh ) A. Löve plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 28 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Scientific Name: Pseudoroegneria spicata
Common Name: Broad-glumed Wheatgrass
Ecotype: Colorado, Alluvial Fan (98-157s)
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Seed cleaning technique: Seed may not need cleaning. Tried to removed seeds, but there were very few viable seeds, so this may be unecessary for germination.

Alluvial Fan (98-157s) collected on 8/29/98.

Propagule Processing: Germination: None. Not successful.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse, 65-70ºF day/55ºF night. Propagated under tent on heat pad (set to 70ºF) with misters set 8 am-8 pm, with 10 sec/15 min watering intervals. One week after germination, seedlings were moved to mister area without tent.
Germination media: Fafard Germinating Mix (superfine).
Growing media: Fafard Growing Mix 2.
Establishment Phase: Sowing/planting technique: Manually sowed in 4x8. Lightly covered.
Time to germination: None. Not successful.

Alluvial Fan (98-157s) sowed 12/17/98.

Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Seed storage condition: Seed stored in the greenhouse.
Other Comments: Comments: There seemed to be very few viable seeds.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Pseudoroegneria spicata seeds; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 28 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Mark E. Majerus
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center
99 South River Road, Rte. 2, Box 1189
Bridger, Montana 59014-9718
(406) 662-3579
(406) 662-3428
mmajerus@mt.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass
Scientific Name: Pseudoroegneria spicata
Common Name: Bluebunch wheatgrass
Species Code: PSSPS
Ecotype: See
General Distribution: Plains, dry slopes, canyons and dry open woods, middle elevations in the mountains; northern Michigan to Alaska, south to western South Dakota, New Mexico, and California.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Target Specifications: Harvest yields vary due to weather and age of stand. Average annual production is 130 kg/ha (116 lbs/ac).
Propagule Collection: Wildland collection occurs late July to late August when caryopsis are tan-brown, at the hard dough stage, and not yet shattering (natural dispersal) from the open panicle; easily hand-harvested.

One collection hour/person yielded 177 grams (6.2 oz) clean seed (varies by year, stand density, and collector experience).

Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed is spread out on a tarp in a dry, sheltered environment and turned daily for approximately 3-5 days, until no moisture or warmth is detected. After drying, material is processed with a Wintersteiger plot combine at concave 1/4 open, speed 1000 rpm, and medium wind. Seed is threshed with a hammermill through a 8/64” round hole screen, and air-screen processed on a Clipper M2B or Eclipse cleaner over a 9/64” round hole screen. Due to medium-sized seed, persistent awns, and reduced seed flow, this species is moderately easy to clean. Larger seed lots are processed most efficiently with mechanized cleaning equipment and smaller seed lots usually require more hand labor.
Seeds/Kg: 355,700.
Germination: 92%.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Seeds placed in 0-1ºC (32-34ºF) for a 10-day cold stratification treatment and then exposed to 22-25ºC (72-77ºF).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Seedbed is firm and free of weeds with good field moisture to 4” depth.
Seed Propagation Method: Direct seeding.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Spring or dormant fall.
Sowing/Planting Technique: 25-30 pure live seed/ft (0.3 m) row, irrigated 91-cm (36-in) row spacing, seeded with two-row double-disk planter with depth bands, optimum seeding depth 0.6 cm (0.25 in).
Establishment Phase: Soil surface is kept moist throughout the 14 day germination and emergence period (also helps prevent soil crusting); lower rates of Buctril® or bromoxynil are applied at 3-5 leaf stage to control broadleaf weeds.

Fertilizer application is not recommended the first year, as it generally stimulates weed growth and competition.

Length of Establishment Phase: 2 growing seasons.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Spring to fall; broadleaf weed control with herbicides must occur prior to boot stage; soil moisture is critical during boot stage, milk stage of seed development, and post harvest to pre-freezeup--no irrigation is applied during flowering pollination); fertilizer is broadcast at 100 lbs actual N/40 lbs actual P/acre in mid-September.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 2 to 3 growing seasons.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Cultivated harvest occurs mid to late July, with a mean harvest date of July 19 at the Bridger Plant Materials Center.

A John Deer swather is used to cut stems into windrows for direct combining, or, to minimize seed loss, a temporary “diaper”--a heavy piece of plastic or canvas clipped under belt draper--is attached for direct catchment.

Seed Storage: Seed is placed in plastic seed bags and stored in a cool, dry environment.
Seed Dormancy: Classified as physiological dormancy.

Length of Storage: Storage Duration: 5-7 years.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Sites: Rising Sun Prairie and Sun Point.
Other Comments: Ecotype: 2 different Glacier National Park accessions periodically collected and produced from 1992 to 1995. Elevation is 1,372 m to 2,225 m (4,500 ft).
References: Manual of the Grasses of the United States, A. S. Hitchcock, Second Edition, Two Volumes, Dover Publications, Inc., 1970.

Flora of the Pacific Northwest, C. L. Hitchcock and A. Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, C. C. Baskin and J. M. Baskin, Academic Press, 2001.

Citation:
Winslow, Susan R. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Pseudoroegneria spicata seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center, Bridger, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 28 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass family
Scientific Name: Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A Love spicata
Common Synonym: Agropyron spicatum Pursh
Common Name: Bluebunch wheatgrass
Species Code: PSESPI
General Distribution: P. spicata ssp. spicata is found throughout western North America; From British Columbia and Alberta south to Texas and California.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seed dormancy is physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Germination occurs at 25D/5N C alternating temperature cycle.
References: Young, J. A., Eckert, R. E., Jr. and Evans, R. A. (1981). Temperature profiles for germination of blue-bunch and beardless wheatgrasses. J. Range Manage. 34, 84-89.
Table 10.28 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2007. Propagation protocol for production of container Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A Love spicata plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 28 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.