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Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Araceae
Family Common Name: Arum Family
Scientific Name: Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott
Common Name: Jack-in-the-pulpit
Species Code: ARTR
General Distribution: Found in rich, moist deciduous woods and flood plains. Full shade. Unusual green/maroon flower (spathe and spadix). Height to 2 feet. Red berries ripen in fall and are showy.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula. The plant blooms from March to June. Fruit type is a berry containing 1-5 seeds. The seed is harvested as soon as the fruits are bright red. Caution: berry juice may irritate skin.
Propagule Processing: Due to irritating chemicals in the leaves and berries, wear gloves while cleaning pulp off seeds. Clean as soon as possible after collection. Begin Stratification.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Requires stratification: mix the seeds with an equal amount of moist perlite or vermiculite. Put mixture into a Ziploc-style bag or a Rubbermaid-style container. 2-3 months of moist cold stratification in a cool dry place (refrigerator or cold garage). Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months for cooling. Container Type: grows best in 24 cell (2"diameter) 14"x8.5"x4" deep flats. Can be grown in virtually any plug size that has diameter greater than 2". Sowing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water, mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover the holes in the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with newspaper so that the soil does not fall out. Fill cells with damp soil and press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the plug cells again. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 2 seeds in each cell. Cover the seeds with a thin amount of soil. Sow year-round due to variable success rates.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistenly damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed leave the plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are transplanted into the field from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: Food for upland game birds and wood thrush. A very long-lived species when established (25+ years.) Seed impossible to store dried. Very young, small plants only produce male flowers.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 18 December 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.