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Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Ericaceae
Family Common Name: Heath family
Scientific Name: Vaccinium angustifolium L.
Common Name: Lowbush blueberry
Species Code: VACANG
General Distribution: V. angustifolium is found from Newfoundland to Saskatchewan south to New Hampshire and New York.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in cold moist stratification for 83 days.
References: Crossley, J. A. (1974b). Vaccinium L. Blueberry. Pp. 840-843. In: C. S. Schopmeyer (Tech. Coord.). Seeds of woody plants in the United States. USDA. Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook No. 450.
Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Vaccinium angustifolium L. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 16 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Ericaceae
Family Common Name: Heath Family
Scientific Name: Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton
Common Synonym: Vaccinium pensylvanicum Lam.
Common Name: Low sweet blueberry
Species Code: VAAN
General Distribution: Dry, sandy, open, and/or shaded ground with oaks, pines, and or aspen, but also in low places, including peatlands. Thrives after clearing or burning. Shrubs woody, up to 2 feet in height. Forms colonies.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Flowers from May to July. Seed is tasty, fleshy blue to black-blue berry. The seed is harvested from July to July to August.
Propagule Processing: Remove the pulp as soon as possible after picking by stipping off the pulp by hand or very lightly in a blender using water or rubbing the berry on a sieve and floating off the pulp. Dry seeds for 1 week. Once seeds have dried out begin stratification.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Stratification: Mix the seeds with an equal of moist perlite or vermiculite in a sealable plastic bag. Add enough water to moisten the mixture. Place bag in a refrigerator or cold garage for at least 3 months. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3 HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months for cooling. Container Type: grows best in 24 cell (2"diameter) 14"x8.5"x4" deep flats. Sowing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water, mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover the holes in the bottom/sides of the plug tray cells with paper. Fill cells with damp soil and press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the cell plugs again. Sow the seed by hand at a rate of about 1 seed in each small cell and 2 seeds in each cell with a diameter greater than 2.5". Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press the seeds into the dirt. Sow year-round due to unpredictable germination.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. through Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees F during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays the same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays should be placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not need to be kept consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: Excellent wildlife attractor. Responds well to fire.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 16 September 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.