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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Rhamnaceae
Family Common Name: Buckthorn family
Scientific Name: Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh
Common Name: Redstem ceanothus
Species Code: CEASAN
Ecotype: Lodgepole Forest, Middle Fork Flathead River, 1100m elev.
General Distribution: C. sanguineus occurs from southern B.C to the Siskiyou mountains of northern California, east to Idaho and western Montana. It is found at low to mid elevations in open or partial shade and grows best on soils that are low in organics.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 800 ml container
Time To Grow: 2 Years
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container cutting
Height: 20 cm
Caliper: 8 mm
Root System: firm plug in 800 ml (4.5 inch) pots.
Propagule Collection: Vegetative Propagation Method: Pre-Rooting
Type of Cutting: Summer semi-hardwood stem cutting collected in late May and early June.
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept moist and under refrigeration prior to pre treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Cuttings were cut into 20 to 30 cm lengths, 1 cm in caliper. Cuttings were treated with 2000 ppm liquid IBA, and struck in mist bed with bottom heat.
Rooting %: 44% in 4 weeks
Cuttings taken in early May had the highest rooting percentages. Roots are susceptible to excessive moisture; cuttings should be uppotted into a well drained media and carefully stored overwinter.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

The outdoor mistbed has automatic intermittent mist that is applied at 6 second intervals every 6 minutes. Too frequent misting will result in leaf and stem rot. Misting frequency is increased or decreased according to daily outdoor temperature and wind. Bottom heat is maintained at 21C with heating cables 12 cm beneath rooting medium. Rooting medium is 50% perlite and 50% sand. Mistbed is covered with shadecloth during rooting. After cuttings are potted, they are moved to an outdoor shadehouse for 4 weeks. They are later moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery and are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Time to Transplant: 8 weeks.
Cuttings that were pre rooted were lifted out of mistbed after adequate root systems were formed. Roots generate from the nodes below the surface of the rooting media.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 to 5 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After cuttings were lifted from the mistbed, they were potted into 3L containers. Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat,perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 5 grams of Osmocote and 2 grams of Micromax per conetainer. Cuttings were irrigated after potting and placed in the shadehouse for 4 weeks. After establishment in the shadehouse, plants were moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 6 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 2 years from cuttings
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Seed Propagation: Seeds/Kg: 290,400/ kg
Seed Processing: Seeds are collected when capsules turn brown. It is necessary to tie fine mesh bags around developing seed capsules since seed dispersal is rapid. Seed is light tan at maturity.
Seed longevity is up to 20 years in dry storage.
Seed dormancy is classified as physical and physiological dormancy.
Seed Treatments: Seed is scarified with sulfuric acid for 20 to 30 minutes followed by a neutralization of lime or by water;followed by 48 hour running water soak, followed by a 90 day cold moist stratification. Germination occurs at 21C.
Seedlings and cuttings should be inoculated with Nitrogen-fixing organisms.
Due to its deep root system and nitrogen fixing ability, it is an excellent pioneer shrub for soil stabilization and imporoving soil fertility.
It is browsed br deer, elk, hares, birds, and rodents.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1973.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, N., published June,1993.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Propagation of Pacific Northwest Native Plants, Rose,R., Chachluski, C., and Haase, D. Oregon State University Press, 1998.

Johnson, Kathy; Keating, Rosemary.; Wick, Dale. 2001. Propagation protocol for vegetative production of container Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh plants (800 ml container); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 5 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225

Family Scientific Name: Rhamnaceae
Family Common Name: Buckthorn family
Scientific Name: Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh
Common Name: Red stem ceanothus
Species Code: CEASAN
General Distribution: C. sanguineus is found within mattoral vegetation association of California.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physical and physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds germinate under greenhouse temperatures.
References: Gratkowski, H. (1973). Pregermination treatments for redstem Ceanothus seeds. USDA For. Serv. Res. Paper PNW-156.
In: Baskin, C. and Baskin, J. Table 10.2 Chapter 10. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, 1998. 666 pages.

Baskin, Carol J.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 5 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.