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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Liliaceae
Family Common Name: Lily family
Scientific Name: Allium cernuum Roth
Common Name: Nodding wild onion
Species Code: ALLCER
Ecotype: Festuca grassland, near Lee Creek, Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT., 1500m elevation.
General Distribution: A. cernuum occurs in meadows or open forests that are moist in the spring; from the prairie foothills to the subalpine zone; from Alaska across Canada, south to Oregon, and also south to Mexico through the Rocky Mountains and the Intermountain West.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 6 to 10 true leaves; 8 to 10 cm.
Caliper: n/a
Root System: firm plug with developed bulb in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Hand collect mature capsules in late August when they begin to split and turn light tan in color. Seeds are black at maturity.
Propagule Processing: Seed longevity is unknown.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 2,600,00/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: N/A
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month outdoor stratification of fresh seeds. Seeds are covered with medium. Germination characteristics of this species are reported to vary according to fresh seed or seed dry stored for six months. Seed has also been reported to germinate equally well in light or dark.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat,perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer. Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification. Seedlings germinate in spring under fluctuating outdoor temperatures and are grown under full sun exposure. Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached. Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Germination occurs in mid May with seeds stratified outdoors. Germination is usually complete in 4 weeks.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Root and shoot development occur rapidly following germination. Plants were fertilized with 13-13-13 fertilizer occasionally during the growing season. Bulbs are well developed 12 weeks after germination.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 9 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow. Storage Duration: October to April.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Bulb species propagated from seeds should be directly seeded and grown in raised well, aerated beds and harvested and outplanted as dormant bulbs in early spring or fall of the second year. This species does not form a root tight plug in a container.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Deno, Norman, Penn. State University, 1993.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff.; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Allium cernuum Roth plants (160 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

David J. Horvath
Nursery Manager
Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery
17855 N. CR 2400E
Topeka, Illinois 61567
309-535-2185
309-535-3286
dhorvath@dnrmail.state.il.us


Family Scientific Name: Liliaceae
Family Common Name: Lily Family
Scientific Name: Allium cernuum Roth.
Common Name: Nodding onion
Species Code: ALLCER
Ecotype: Illinois 650 ft elevation
General Distribution: A. cernuum occurs in meadows or open forests that are moist in the spring; from the prairie foothills to the subalpine; from Alaska across Canada, south to Oregon, and also south to Mexico through the Rockies and the Intermountain West. It is found through out the eastern and Midwestern states.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 1+0 container plugs
Time To Grow: 7 Months
Target Specifications: Height: n/a, herbaceous perennial.
Caliper: n/a, herbaceous perennial.
Root System: Healthy bareroot system from field grown crop.
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected by hand from nursery stock. The plant flowers from approx. July 13 to August 26. Seed is harvested about September 1.
Propagule Processing: After drying, run the seed through the Dybvig, dry, to separate chaff from the seed. Then it is run over the Clipper with a top screen of 1/12 and a bottom screen of 1/20 or 1/15. The last step is to run the seed through the Forsberg gravity seed table.
Pre-Planting Treatments: 8 ounces of seed is saved to sow one bench in either 64 flats of the Multipot #6, or 24 flats of the Multipot #3 or #4.
Seed is damp stratified by mixing it with equal amounts of vermiculite and lightly dampening in a plastic bag or container.
Store this seed for 3-4 months in a cold room of 34-36 degrees F.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Fully controlled greenhouse.
Container Type and Volume: Multipot #3, #4, or #6 are used. Cell volumes are 6 cubic inches, 9 cu. in. and 6 cu. in. respectively.
Growing Media: Sterile, Pro-Mix PGX. Add vermiculite and perlite at a 10:1 ratio. Mix in 5 ounces of Osmocote, slow release fertilizer, 17-6-10, per cubic foot of soil. Ensure flats are tapped down to prevent settling.

Total Time to Harvest: 7 - 11 months, depending on weather and plant/ root development.
Sowing Date: Three crops are started in the greenhouse with the first in late December and the last no later than the end of March.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Sow the seeds by hand by broadcasting. Try to sprinkle 3 - 5 seeds per cell. Seed purity rates vary from year to year. Thus, it is easier to thin than to transplant. Cover the seeds to one times their depth with the same growing media. Use a dibble board or roller to gently press seed and cover soil in the cell.

Establishment Phase: Set the greenhouse temperatures to be 70-80 degrees F during the day, and 65-75 degrees F at night.
75% germination is reached in about one week.
Plants must be watered by hand during germination. Set the hose on gentle shower to prevent seeds from splashing out.
Active Growth Phase: Once germination is successful, the greenhouse temperature may be turned down gradually depending on outside temperatures. Plants are irrigated in the morning by soaking for 20 to 30 minutes. This allows the foliage to dry out during the day. Once true leaves appear, not cotyledons, the plants may be fertilized. Start with 50 ppm of Rapid Grow or Peter's Liquid Fertilizer once a week. This rate is increased to 200 ppm gradually, and, again, decreased to 50 ppm before moving the plants outside to the shadehouse. It is important to rinse fertilizer residue off the foliage by running the irrigation for 30 seconds. Plants should be thinned to 2 plants per cell. This should be accomplished before the roots are too extensive. When foliage reaches 8 to 10 inches, the plants need to be pruned back to 3 or 4 inches. This is accomplished by turning the flats on their sides and cutting with scissors or sheers. Make sure the clippings are all removed from the flats to prevent disease spread.
Hardening Phase: The first greenhouse crop will be moved to a hoop house in late January to February. To acclimate the plants, the irrigation rate is reduced to 50 ppm before moving and greenhouse temperatures are decreased to 55-60 degrees day. The second and third crops are moved directly to the shadehouse in April and May. Again, greenhouse controls and fertilization rates are adjusted in preparation for the move. Plants that reach 8-10 inches in the shadehouse will require pruning also.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Flats may be unplugged in October or November as long as most of the tops have died down.
Storage Conditions: Plugs that are not shipped during this fall's planting season may be stored for spring planting in cold rooms above freezing, preferably 40-50 degrees. Try to remove most of the dead foliage as you can before bagging the root plugs for storage. Store them on plastic bags to ensure the roots do not dry out.
Storage Duration: Approximately 4 to 6 months. Plugs may be shipped at any time as long as the receiver has cold storage.
Length of Storage: 4 to 6 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Illinois prairie sites to include State Parks, highway roadsides, and limited private lands. Prefers dry to mesic prairies.
Outplanting Date: September to November

Citation:
Flood, Roberta Mountz; Horvath, David J.; Blessman, Gary. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Allium cernuum Roth. plants (1+0 container plugs); Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Mason State Nursery, Topeka, Illinois. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Liliaceae
Scientific Name: Allium cernuum
Common Name: Nodding Onion
Species Code: ALCE2
Ecotype: Colorado,Sprague Lake (98-004s), Long’s Peak Parking Lot (98-092s), Twin Sisters (98-082s), Alluvial Fan (98-093s)
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Collected at Sprague Lake on 09/16/98, Long’s Peak Parking Lot on 10/07/98, Alluvial Fan on 09/21/98, Twin Sisters on 09/21/98.
Seed cleaning technique: Small black seeds simply removed from papery covering. Many seeds are not filled and are easily crushed, these won’t germinate.
Propagule Processing: Germination: 50-75% at Sprague Lake.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse, 65-70ºF day/55ºF night. Propagated on the heating pad (set at 70ºF) under tent with misters set 8 am-8 pm, with 10 sec/15 min watering intervals. One week after germination, seedlings were moved to mister area without tent.
Germination media: Fafard Germinating Mix (superfine).
Growing media:>/b> Fafard Growing Mix 2.
Establishment Phase: Sowing/planting technique: Manually sowed in seed pack flat, 2-3 seeds/slot, cover seed lightly with germination mix.
Time to germination: 14 days.
Establishment Phase: Germination uneven and occurs over many days.
Sprague Lake sowed on 10/27/98 emerged on 11/10/98; Long's Peak Parking Lot sowed on 11/18/98, emerged on 11/30/98; Alluvial Fan sowed on 11/18/98; Twin Sisters sowed on 11/12/98, emerged on 11/30/98.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Seed storage condition: Seed stored in the greenhouse.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Allium cernuum seeds; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Liliaceae
Family Common Name: Lily family
Scientific Name: Allium cernuum L.
Common Name: Nodding onion
Species Code: ALLCER
General Distribution: A. cernuum is found throughout North America.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are cold stratified and germinate at 20/10 C. Germination is equal in light and dark.
References: Baskin and Baskin,1988 unpublished.Baskin, C. and Baskin, J. Table 10.20 Chapter 10 In: Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, 1998. 666 pages.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol J.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Allium cernuum L. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 24 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.