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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower Family
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium L. (Nutt.) Piper
Common Synonym: Achillea lanulosa Nutt.
Common Name: Yarrow
Species Code: ACHMIL
Ecotype: Subalpine meadow Logan Pass, Glacier National Park
General Distribution: A. millefolium is a circumboreal species found throughout North America, Europe and Asia. It grows from sealevel to the alpine zone in a variety of habitats. It has a very broad and diverse ecological amplitude, being a frequent colonizer of disturbed areas from sea level to the alpine zone.
It is an important pioneer, long-lived perennial forb that spread by rhizomes once established on outplanting sites.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 4 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 10 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: firm plug in conetainer
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected by cutting entire inflorescence and the disk achenes are brown. Seeds mature in late summer and early fall. Seeds are light tan at maturity. Seeds are collected in paper bags and kept in a well ventilayed greenhouse during the drying process and prior to cleaning.
Collection Locality: Logan Pass, Glacier National Park,MT
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with a hammermill, screens, and fanning mill.
Seed longevity is 3 to 5 years in sealed containers at 1C.
Seed dormancy is classified as non dormant.
Seeds per kilogram: 4,700,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 90% to 100%
Pre-Planting Treatments: None
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility or Greenhouse.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are lightly covered with medium.
Growing medium used is milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer. Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall if grown outdoors in the nursery or just prior too sowing in the greenhouse. Conetainers are irrigated thoroughly after sowing.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept slightly moist during germination. Germination occurs at 22C. Germination is usually complete in 14 days. Seedlings are thinned at the true leaf stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 3 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Shoot and root development occur rapidly following germination. Additional fertilizer was not required for plants to obtain root tightness in 3 to 4 weeks. Plants were flowering 6 weeks after germination.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 6 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are leached with clear water and fertilized with 10-20-20 lquid NPK fertilizer once before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest:4 months
Harvest Date: June to July
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanitng Site: Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: After snowmelt at high elevations.
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Yarrow is rhizomatous and can be propagated by divisions.
There are 3 botanical varieties; var. lanulosa (non maritime), var. alpicola (alpine), and var. californica (maritime).
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Seed Germination: Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, Norman, 1993.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff.; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Achillea millefolium L. (Nutt.) Piper plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Steve Parr
Upper Colorado Environmental Plant Center
P.O. Box 448, 5538 - RBC 4
Meeker, Colorado 81641
(970) 878-5003
(970) 878-5004
plant@cmn.net
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/copmc/


Family Scientific Name: Compositae
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium L.
Common Name: Western yarrow
Species Code: ACMI2
Ecotype: Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Collected in Mesa Verde National Park by G. Noller on August 29 thru October 8, 1991.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Clean with hammer mill then air screen cleaner.
Seeds/lb.: 2.2 to 4.1 million.
%Germination: 60-98%.
%Purity: 20-80%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatment: None.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environemnt: Field grown.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: May-June or September.
Sowing/Plant Tecnique: Planet Jr. 50-70 seed/ft. - 1/2" deep or less.

3' spacing on rows.

Active Growth Phase: N/A.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Length of Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Hand harvest or combine - August 13-October 29, 1992.
Storage Conditions: Cool and dry.
Length of Storage: At least 7 years.
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Clumps can be split and replanted. Will need water for establishment.

Citation:
Noller, Gary L. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Achillea millefolium L. plants; Upper Colorado Environmental Plant Center, Meeker, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Betty Young
Nurseries Sr Manager
Bldg 201, Fort Mason
San Francisco, California 94123
415-331-6917
415-331-7521
byoung@ggnpa.org


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower Family
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium L.
Common Name: Yarrow
Species Code: ACHMIL
Ecotype: Marin County, California
General Distribution: A. millefolium is a circumboreal species, found throughout North America, Asia and Europe.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: Deepot 16
Target Specifications: Height: N/A
Caliper: N/A
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected between June 20th and November 15th. Mature inflorescences are brown.
Seed is light gray at maturity, more or less 2 mm long, oblong to ovate, compressed.
Propagule Processing: If seed heads are completely removed from plants, then heads should be rubbed over a sieve screen (#12 or #14) to release seeds. Chaff mixed with seeds ia acceptable.
Storage Conditions: Seeds are kept dry and stored in a refrigerator.
Pre-Planting Treatments: None required.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Fully Controlled Greenhouse.
Sowing Method: Transplanting Germinants.
4 grams of seeds are sown per flat containing Sunshine Mix #4 Aggregate Plus (peat moss, perlite, major and minor nutrients, gypsum, and dolomitic lime).
Seeds are mixed with media to sow and are lightly covered.
Flats are watered in with an autmatic irrigation system.
Seeds are sown on July 1st.
% Germination: 40%
Establishment Phase: Seeds germinate 15 days after sowing.
Seedlings are transplanted 15 days after germination to individual containers 2"x7" tubes (Deepot 16) containing standard potting mix of peat moss, fir bark, perlite, and sand.
Transplant Survival averages 90%.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
References: A California Flora and Supplement, Munz, P., University of California Press, Berkeley and London, 1973.

Citation:
Young, Betty 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Achillea millefolium L. plants (Deepot 16); , San Francisco, California. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Lindsay Springer
Lead Biological Science Technician - Greenhouse Manager
USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park
1000 Highway 36
Estes Park, Colorado 80517-8397
(970) 586-1252
(970) 589-1392
Lindsay_Springer@nps.gov


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium
Common Name: Yarrow
Species Code: ACMI2
Ecotype: Colorado, Beaver Meadow Picnic (98-038s), Sprague Lake (98-074s), Twin Sisters (98-076s)
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Seed cleaning technique: Seeds teased from seed head with tweezers. Seeds are very small and gray. The seed heads may appear empty, but used tweezers to determine whether seed is present as seed is not necessarily visible. Seed will be mixed with large quantities of miscellaneous plant material after cleaning.
Beaver Meadow Picnic collected 09/28/98, sowed 11/04/98, emerged 11/10/98.
Sprague Lake collected 09/16/98, sowed 11/12/98, emerged 11/17/98.
Twin Sisters collected 09/21/98, sowed 11/12/98, emerged 11/18/98.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse, 65-70ºF day/55ºF night. Propagated under tent with misters set 8 am-8 pm, with 10 sec/15 min watering intervals. One week after germination, seedlings were moved to mister area without tent.
Germination media: Fafard Germinating Mix (superfine).
Growing media: Fafard Growing Mix 2.
Establishment Phase: Sowing/planting technique: Manually sowed in seed pack flat, 2-3 (?) seeds/slot, cover seed lightly with germination mix.
Time to germination: 6 days.
Establishment Phase: Germination uniform and rapid.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Seed storage condition: Seed stored in the greenhouse.

Citation:
Butler, Jennifer; Frieswyk, Christin. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Achillea millefolium seeds; USDI NPS - Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Mark E. Majerus
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center
99 South River Road, Rte. 2, Box 1189
Bridger, Montana 59014-9718
(406) 662-3579
(406) 662-3428
mmajerus@mt.nrcs.usda.gov
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/plan


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Aster family
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium
Common Name: Common yarrow
Species Code: ACMI2
Ecotype: See
General Distribution: Circumboreal distribution throughout North America, and in Asia and Europe; plains and mountain valleys.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Target Specifications: Harvest yields vary due to weather and age of stand. Average annual production is 41.3 kg/ha (36.8 lb/ac).
Propagule Collection: Wildland collection occurs mid August to mid September when the white inflorescence has turned almost completely brown and yet has a slight salt-and-pepper appearance. The flat achene is gray with white, narrow, papery wings, and not yet shattering (natural dispersal) from the cyme; easily hand-harvested by cutting the entire seedhead.

One collection hour/person will yield an average 138.3 grams (4.9 oz) clean seed (ranged 39 to 266 grams and varies by year, stand density, and collector experience).

Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed is spread out on a tarp in a dry, sheltered environment and turned daily for approximately 3-5 days, until no moisture or warmth is detected. After drying, material is processed with a Wintersteiger plot combine at concave closed, speed 700 rpm, and no wind. Seed is threshed with a hammermill through a 4/64” round hole screen, air-screen processed on a Clipper M2B or Eclipse cleaner over a 1-21” round hole screen with low wind, and then over a 6x30 wire mesh screen (0.0203” x 0.1471”) to remove very fine debris. Due to tiny seed, abundance of floral chaff, and moderate seed flow, this species is moderately easy to clean. Larger seed lots are processed most efficiently with mechanized cleaning equipment and smaller seed lots usually require more hand labor.
Seed/Kg: 6,600,000.
Germination: 97%.
Purity: 100%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: seeds placed in 0-1ºC (32-34ºF) for a 10-day cold stratification treatment and then exposed to 22-25ºC (72-77ºF).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Seedbed is firm and free of weeds with good field moisture to 4” depth.
Seed Propagation Method: Direct seeding.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Spring.
Sowing/Planting Technique: 25-30 pure live seed/ft. (0.3 m) row, irrigated 91cm (36 in) row spacing, seeded with 2-row double-disk planter with depth bands, optimum seeding depth 0.6 cm (0.25 in).
Establishment Phase: Soil surface is kept moist throughout the 14 day germination and emergence period - approximately 3-4 light applications per week (also helps prevent soil crusting).

Fertilizer application is not recommended the first year, as it generally stimulates weed growth and competition.

Length of Establishment Phase: 2 growing seasons.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Spring to fall; Plateau™ herbicide is recommended for control of broadleaf weeds and application must occur pre-emergence or post-emergence prior to bolting, budding, or bloomset of wildflower crop; soil moisture is critical during budding stage, after anthesis, and post harvest to pre-freezeup –no irrigation is applied during flowering (pollination); fertilizer is broadcast at 100 lbs actual N/40 lbs actual P/acre in mid-September.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 2 to 3 growing seasons.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Cultivated harvest occurs mid July to mid August, with a mean harvest date of August 1 at the Bridger Plant Materials Center.

A temporary “diaper”- a heavy piece of plastic or canvas clipped under belt draper – is attached on a John Deer swather for direct catchment to minimize seed loss.

Seed Storage: Seed is placed in plastic ziplock bags (seed is so small it may sneak out of paper containers), repeatedly punctured to prevent moisture buildup, placed in cloth or plastic seed sacks, and stored in a cool, dry environment.

Seed Dormancy: Seed is classified as nondormant.

Length of Storage: Storage Duration: 5-7 years.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Sites: Babb Airport, Blankenship Rd., Canyon Cr. Rd., Christensen Meadow, Crystal Cr. Burn, and McGinnis Cr. Rd.
Other Comments: Ecotype: 6 different Glacier National Park accessions periodically collected and produced in 1991, and from 1997 to 1999. Elevation ranges 991 m to 1,378 m (3,251 ft to 4,520 ft).
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, C. L. Hitchcock and A. Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, C. C. Baskin and J. M. Baskin, Academic Press, 2001.

Citation:
Winslow, Susan R. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Achillea millefolium seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Bridger Plant Materials Center, Bridger, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower family
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium L.
Common Name: Yarrow
Species Code: ACHMIL
General Distribution: A. millefolium is a circumboreal species found at all elevations in North America.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Germination occurs at 20 C.
References: Kaye, T. N. (1997). Seed dormancy in high elevation plants: Implications for ecology and restoration. Pp. 115-120. T.
Table 10.33 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Achillea millefolium L. plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.
 

Protocol Information

Carol and Jerry Baskin
Professors
University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0225


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower family
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium L. lanulosa (Nutt) Piper
Common Name: Yarrow
Species Code: ACHMIL
General Distribution: A. millefoilum var. lanulosa is found throughout North America.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Processing: Inferred seed dormancy is physiological dormancy.
References: Bonde, E, K. (1965b). Studies on the germination of seeds of Colorado alpine plants. Univ. Colorado Stud. No. 14.
.Table 10.35 In: Baskin, C.J. and Baskin, J.M. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution in Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, 1998. Chapter 10: A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Temperate and Arctic Zones, pages 331 to 458.

Citation:
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Achillea millefolium L. lanulosa (Nutt) Piper plants; University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.