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Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741

Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass Family
Scientific Name: Panicum anceps
Common Name: Beaked panicum
Species Code: PANANC
Ecotype: Great Smoky Mountains National Park
General Distribution: Moist, especially sandy soil. New Jersey to southern Ohio and western Missouri, south to the Gulf
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Plug container seedling.
Height: Around 6” after cut-backs. More spreading than upright habit.
Root System: Full, firm plug which leaves no loose soil when pulled.
Propagule Collection: Collected at Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cades Cove Old Field by National Park Service staff in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a large two-screen clipper. Seeds are run through the machine 3 times—once with screen sizes 10 and 1, and twice with screen sizes 8 and 1. Air flow is adjusted to a low-medium rate.
Seeds/Kg: Approximately 1,250,000.
Germination: 1997 seed 64% (test); 187 plugs per gram seed in 1999 production.
Purity: 82%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Stratify sown seed for 8-10 weeks in cold storage at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity to promote uniform germination.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures (75/68ºF) and 12-14 hours of daylight extended with high pressure sodium lights.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand-sown in germination plug trays.
Container Type and Volume: Seeds are sown in 392 plug trays. Seedlings are transplanted to 72 plug trays or Ropak multipots (67 cells).
Growing Media: Seeds are sown in Fafard Germinating Mix. Seedlings are transplanted into a 2:1 Sunshine #5:Compro mix (1 bale sunshine, 2 bags Compro) with 180 day Nutricote (16-8-8) SR fertilizer incorporated at 20 oz. per batch of mix.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: Seed was sown on 9/11/98 and cool stratified 8 weeks (9/11-11/9); placed on bench 11/9/98.
% Emergence and Date: First germination occurred within 7 days of return to the greenhouse. Over 50% of the seedlings that ultimately germinated, emerged within 30 days; the rest took up to 45 days.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seed is sown in 392 or 406 plug trays into germination mix and lightly covered with media, then drenched with fungicide, covered with clear plastic and cold-stratified for 8-10 weeks. Trays are then moved to the greenhouse bench and kept evenly moist until germination. Leaving the clear plastic on the seed trays has enhanced germination in other warm season grasses and may be beneficial here too. Trays will still have to be watered.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings were transplanted to 72 plug flats about 60 days after removal from cold stratification. Smaller, later-germinating seedlings were hand-dug; the rest pulled. This grass appears to prefer well-drained media.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid growth phase: Occurs when day length and natural radiant heat in greenhouse increase in late winter or early spring. Plugs “sat” for a while during January and February. Problems developed during this time with chlorosis and some senescence of leaf blades which could not be corrected. Seedlings resumed growth in late February/early March and were ready for outplanting the first week of May. One factor for the delayed growth may have been the excessive number of cloudy, wet days and lack of natural solar experienced during this winter.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: 2-3 weeks prior to out-planting, fertilization is stopped, water is decreased and greenhouse temperatures are reduced or plugs are moved outdoors to a sheltered location.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: Allow about 14-15 weeks from germination to finished plug.
Harvest Date: Out-planted in early May in the Park.
Storage Conditions: N/A; plugs are not over-wintered.
Seed storage: Seed bags in seed cooler held at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: Unknown.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Outplanting Date: First week in May.
References: Hitchcock. 1950. Manual of the Grasses of the United States, 2nd edition, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.

Gleason, H and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second ed. Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden. 910 pp.

Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Panicum anceps plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.