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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Araliaceae
Family Common Name: Ginseng Family
Scientific Name: Oplopanax horridus Miq.
Common Synonym: Oplopanax horridum (Smith) Miq.
Common Name: Devil's Club
Species Code: OPLHOR
Ecotype: Cedar/ Devil's Club habitat, 1000 m, Avalanche, Glacier National Park
General Distribution: O. horridus occurs in moist forests from Alaska to Oregon, east and west of the Cascades, east to Idaho and Montana, and in Michigan and Ontario.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 490 ml containers
Time To Grow: 2 Years
Target Specifications: Height: 10 cm
Caliper: 7 mm
Root System: Firm plug in container
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in late August when fruit turns dark red. Seeds are tan at maturity.
Fruits are hand stripped from field plants and collected in plastic bags. Fruits are kept under refrigeration until cleaned.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with a Dybvig seed cleaner and extracted seeds are screened.
Seed dormancy is classified as morpho- physiological dormancy for the related genera Panax, which occupies a similar habitat.
Seeds/kg: unknown
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 80 to 90%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 72 hour running water rinse, followed by a minimum of a 100 day cold, moist stratification/100 day warm, moist stratification/100 day cold, moist stratification. Germination occurred the second year after sowing.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method:Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is milled sphagnum peat,perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 490 ml ml conetainer.
Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification.
Establishment Phase: Germination occurred the second year in June at 22C during the day and 16C during the night. True leaves appear 2 weeks after germination. Plants had developed 2 to 4 true leaves 1 month following germination. Initial establishment is slow.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 to 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings grow at a moderate rate following establishment. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 NPK liquid fertilizer during the growing season.
Plants average 3.5 cm in height/ 3 mm in caliper at the end of the first growing season. Root development also occurred at a moderate rate. Seedlings were not root tight at the end of the first growing season.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 10 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 NPK liquid in the fall, pots are leached with clear water, one final irrigation is applied before overwintering.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest:2 years.
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Oplopanax has a shallow rhizomatous root system and requires shade during seedling production and on ouplanting sites.
Seedling production is a 2 to 3 year process.
Cuttings are more expedient.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1981.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Seeds of Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, N., published June,1993.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Wick, Dale; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff.; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Oplopanax horridus Miq. plants (490 ml containers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.