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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Hypericaceae
Family Common Name: Saint John's Wort family
Scientific Name: Hypericum formosum H.B.K.
Common Name: Western St. John's wort
Species Code: HYPFOR
Ecotype: Subalpine meadows, Logan Pass, 2032m elev.
General Distribution: H. formosum occurs in coastal to subalpine habitats, from B.C. to Baja California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and south to Mexico.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 5 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container Seedling
Height: 4 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected in early to late fall when capsules turn brown and are just beginning to split open at the top of the capsule. Seeds are collected by using scissors to cut capsules from the multiple stems. Seeds are kept in paper bags in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with a hammermill and screens.
Seed longevity is unknown.
Seed dormancy is classified as non dormant.
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 70 to 90%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in water for 1 to 4 hours. Seeds are placed on moist paper towels inside a opened plastic bag under refrigeration at 1 to 3 C for 30 days. Seeds germinate to the highest percentages when they are surface sown on the medium.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor Nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are surface sown for possible light requirement.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18 C at night. Seedlings are hand watered an remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings germinate 10 days after sowing. Once established and thinned 2 weeks after emergence, the seedlings produce rapid shoot and root growth. Seedlings are very succulent during early stages of growth. After seedlings are well established, they must dry down between irrigations.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings begin to develop numerous shoot buds in the leaf axils along the first developing stem. Shoots can be cut back at this stage to initiate multiple stems.
When seedlings develop multiple shoots, they must be spaced for adequate air circulation. Seedlings are fertilized weekly with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm during the active growth stage. Plants are moved to outdoor nursery in late spring to continue growth. If plants are not out-planted the first year, it will be necessary to pot them into 800 ml (4.5 inch) containers.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 4.5 months Harvest Date: August Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow cover.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: After snowmelt at high elevations.
Outplanting Survival at 3 Years: 92%
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: H. formosum is rhizomatous and can be propagated by divisions.
H. formosum is a multiple stemmed, mat-forming species that open knolls around bedrock and subalpine meadows were soils are rich in peat but, sharply drained.
There are 2 botanical varieties: var. scouleri (lowland to mid-montane), and var. nortoniae (subalpine).
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, Norman, publ. 1993.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, National Park Service and National Resources Conservation Service, April 1996.
1999 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J. and Brenneman, B., unpublished.

Luna, Tara; Wick, Dale.; Evans, Jeff.; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Hypericum formosum H.B.K. plants (160 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 August 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.