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Protocol Information

Morris J. Houck, Jr.
Natural Resources Conservation Service- James E. "Bud" Smith Plant Materials Center
3776 Farm Road 1292
Knox City, Texas 79529-2514
(940) 658-3922
(940) 658-3047

Family Scientific Name: Rhamnaceae
Family Common Name: Buckthorn Family
Scientific Name: Rhamnus caroliniana Walt
Common Name: Carolina buckthorn
Species Code: RHCA2
Ecotype: Travertine Area, Nature Center and Bromide Hill.
General Distribution: Carolina buckthorn grows in bottomlands in east and southeast Texas, near streams and canyons in central and south-central Texas, also east to Florida and north to Virginia. Will grow in either acid or alkaline soil in full or partial sun.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling.
Height: 3 ft.
Caliper: N/A/
Root System: Taproot.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Sulphur, Oklahoma by Rudy G. Esquivel.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Fruit collected by hand from tree as soon as they turn dark purple in the fall. Run fruit through a macerator to remove pulp.
Seeds/Kg: N/A.
Germination: N/A.
Purity: N/A.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Fresh seeds require no pretreatment in order to germinate promptly. Stored seeds should be stratified for 30 days at 41º F. Germination of fresh or pretreated seeds will occur within five weeks.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse and lath house for planting and growing.
Seed Propagation Method: Seedlings are rapid growing and transplant easily from flats to one-gallon containers.
Container Type and Volume: 3 gallon.
Growing Media: Sunshine Mix #3.
Establishment Phase: N/A.
Active Growth Phase: N/A.
Hardening Phase: N/A.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: N/A.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Sulphur, Oklahoma.
Outplanting Date: Transplant in early spring or fall.
References: Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas, 1011-1012; How to Grow Native Plants of Texas and the Southwest, 303-304; Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States, 704-708; NRCS James E. ‘Bud’ Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas, Plant Collection Information, ECS-580.

Esquivel, Rudy G. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Rhamnus caroliniana Walt plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service- James E. "Bud" Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 4 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.