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Protocol Information

Joel L. Douglas
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Coffeeville/Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials Center
2533 County Road 65
Coffeeville, Mississippi 38922-2652
(601) 675-2588
(601) 675-2369

Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Scientific Name: Dracopis amplexicaulis (Vahl) Cass.
Common Synonym: Rudbeckia amplexicaulis Vahl
Common Name: Clasping coneflower
Species Code: DRAM
Ecotype: Natchez Trace Parkway close to Port Gibson, Mississippi.
General Distribution: This species occurs from Missouri and Kansas to Mississippi and Texas. Blackeyed susan is much more common in Mississippi than this species.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Collection: Collected in the lower section of the Natchez Trace Parkway collection area, close to Port Gibson, Mississippi by B.B. Billingsley, Jr. in 1990.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Direct combined and cleaned using an air screen cleaner. Although closely related to blackeyed susan, seed of this species is much easier to clean due to a slightly larger seed size and a slightly elliptic rather than tapering outline typical of blackeyed susan.
Seeds/Kg: 2,100,000.
Germination: In 1992=14%, in 1993=25%, in 1994=43%, in 1995=83.5%.
Purity: In 1992=69%, in 1993=93%, in 1994=98.7% and in 1995=97.31%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None required. Direct seed.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Field grown.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: August to September.
Emergence and Date: September to October.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Broadcast seeding on a field following burning, disking, and cultipacking. In the initial planting, seed was mixed with sand and broadcast on the soil surface. The sand is not necessary if the distributor can handle fairly small quantities of small seed. Planting rate is 4.48 to 5.56 kilograms PLS per hectare (4 to 5 pounds PLS per acre).
Establishment Phase: Seeds germinate in the fall and overwinter as small plants (not rosettes). It is an annual species that establishes readily.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Plants begin to elongate to form flowering shoots in March to April.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 11 months.
Harvest Date: Early July. Timing of harvest is critical. The receptacles on the plants eventually become brown and wooly in appearance due to the shedding of the disk florets. Seed must be harvested soon after this occurs or much will be shattered and lost, but if harvest is attempted before this time, the seed is held too tightly in the receptacles for optimum harvest.
Seed Storage: Normal cool, dry storage. PMC cooler is maintained at 12.70 C (550 F) and 45% relative humidity.
Seed Dormancy: Seeds appear to have no dormancy.
Length of Storage: Storage Duration: 1 to 5 years.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Natchez Trace Parkway 3X section and others.
Outplanting Date: 3X section planted in 1994, other sections of the Natchez Trace Parkway were planted in 1996.
Other Comments: Seed production from vigorously growing good stands in quite impressive, with yields up to 224 kg per hectare (200 pounds per acre) possible. This species requires more nitrogen fertilizer to produce maximum yields (38 kg per hectare or 34 pounds per acre actual N) compared to the other wildflower species grown for the Natchez Trace (15 kg per hectare or 13 pounds per acre actual N).
References: Hartmann, H.T. and Kester, D.E. 1975. Plant propagation principles and practices. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Engelwood Cliffs, NJ. 662 p.

Grabowski, Janet M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Dracopis amplexicaulis (Vahl) Cass. plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Coffeeville/Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials Center, Coffeeville, Mississippi. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 5 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.