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Protocol Information

Charles Gramling
USDA FS - WW Ashe Nursery (closed)
368 Ashe Nursery Rd.
Brooklyn, Mississippi 39367

Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine family
Scientific Name: Pinus palustris
Common Name: Longleaf pine
Species Code: PINPAL
Ecotype: West Gulf Region
General Distribution: The natural range of Pinus palustris includes most of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Plains from southeastern Virginia to eastern Texas and south through the the northern two thirds of pensisular Florida. It also grows in the Piedmont Ridge and Valley, and Mountain Provinces of Alabama and northwest Georgia.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 1+0 container plugs
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Height: None; no stem elongation; needles 20 to 30 cm long.
Caliper: 6 to 12 mm.
Root System: Firm root plug.
Propagule Collection: Source of Seeds: Longleaf pine seed orchards in Texas, Louisana, Mississippi
Propagule Processing: Remove empties by gravity table separation.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Treat with Thiram.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Open growing facility.

Container type and volume: Pinus palustris are very sensitive to competition and should be grown at a cell density of less than 540 cell/m2 to achieve good seedling quality. The Multipot 3/96 has atop opening of 3.8 cm and is 12 cm deep. The cavities are 98cm3 in volume with a cell density of 441/m2.

Growing medium: 50% spaghnum peat and 50% #2 grade vermiculite. The pH of the medium may need to be adjusted with lime to the level of 5.0. A slow release fertilizer, such as Osmocote 18-6-12, is incorporated into the medium at the rate of 6 lbs/cu. yard. Fill cavities and tamp lightly to remove air pockets. Brush media to make room for seed placement.

Sowing Date: May 1st

Sowing Technique: Sow 1 or 2 seeds per cavity depending on seed viability. These should be thinned to 1 seedling per cell before seed coats are shed. Oversowing or thinning is preferred to transplanting germinants.

Establishment Phase: Pinus palustris seeds germinate best at cooler temperatures, therfore, crops should be started by early May when outdoor temperatures are near the optimum 21C and with a range of 15C to 27C. Frequent misting is all that is needed during germination to keep the media moist. Care should be taken not to overwater which can cause lower germination and promote disease problems. Fungicide applications should begin as soon as feasilble to reduce damping off of germinants and inhibit pathogenic fungi development. Seedlings develop best in full sunlight so no shading is necessary.
Length of Establishment Phase: 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After seedlings are established, the frequency of irrigation is reduced. Seedlings should be watered thoroughly and the media surface allowed to dry between waterings. Some supplemental fertilization with a high nitrogen but balanced fertilizer solution, such as Peters 15-16-17 NPK Peat lite Special, should be used to maintain proper foliage coloration. Clipping and mowing is needed when needles begin to lay over the surrounding seedlings. Needles should not be clipped to less than 15 cm.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 15 weeks
Hardening Phase: Hardening should begin when stem diameters are near the desired size or when daylengths and temperatures restrict growth. Seedlings should be stressed by reducing water availibilty and withholding nutrients.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: October 1 or as soil moisture at the planting site becomes sufficient for outplanting in the fall. Planting may continue throughout the fall and winter. Storage Conditions: Seedlings can be held in the containers at the nursery unless temperatures below -8C are anticipated over a several day peroid. Seedlings may also be extracted from containers, boxed, and stored under refrigeration similiar to bareroot stock.

Storage Duration: Containerized stock can be held throughout the winter at the nursery if protected from extreme freezing temperatures. Holding in the nursery is practical because no stem elongation occursand some stem diameter growth does occur during warm periods. Those extracted and boxed can be held under refrigeration for 4 to 6 weeks.

Length of Storage: See above

Gramling, Charles 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Pinus palustris plants (1+0 container plugs); USDA FS - WW Ashe Nursery (closed), Brooklyn, Mississippi. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 4 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.