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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Scrophulariaceae
Family Common Name: Figwort family
Scientific Name: Pedicularis groenlandica Retz.
Common Name: Pink Elephant's head
Species Code: PEDGRO
Ecotype: Sualpine wet meadows and streambanks, Logan Pass, Glacier Co., Glacier National Park, MT., 2032m elevation.
General Distribution: P. groenlandica inhabits wet meadows, streambanks, and wetlands from mid-montane to alpine elevations. It ranges from B.C to Labrador south to California and New Mexico.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 2 Years
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 4 cm, 6 to 10 true leaves
Caliper: n/a
Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in early fall when capsules turn brown and begin to dehisce. Seeds are brown at maturity and are collected in paper bags and kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned by using a hammermill and fan at NRCS.
Seed longevity is unknown.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 2,186,400/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 65%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are treated with 200 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 hrs. Afterwards, seeds are thoroughly rinsed with water. Seeds are placed into a 90 to 100 day cold, moist stratification at 1 to 3 C.
Seeds begin to germinate during stratification and are planted as germinants.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility or temperature controlled greeenhouse.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are lightly covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings developed the first set of true leaves at 4 weeks after germination. Pedicularis is hemi-parasitic and requires a companion host in the container during growth. We used Carex nigricans as a companion plant.
At this stage, it is necessary to companion plant a host plant in the conetainers. The initial root growth is very thin and unbranched, and seedlings grow slowly until the seedling root penetrate the roots of the host plant.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings grow at a moderate rate. It is important to manage leaf growth of companion host plant to ensure that it does not shade out the Pedicularis seedling.
Seedlings are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm once per month during active growth.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation frequency is gradually reduced in September and October. One final irrigation is applied before covering for the winter.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 2 years
Harvest Date: August of the 2nd year.
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow cover.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: P. groenlandica is a hemi-parasitic perennial. Exudates from the host root are not required for initial germination and growth; however, seedlings will steadily decline in vigor unless a host plant is established in the container.
This species requires frequent irrigation during cultivation and a suitably moist site for outplanting.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, Norman, publ. 1993.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, National Park Service and National Resources Conservation Service, April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Pedicularis groenlandica Retz. plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 4 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.