References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.
Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.
Growing Colorado Plants From Seed; A State of the Art. Vol. 3 : Forbs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NTIS General Report, 1982.
Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Deno, Norman, Penn State University, 1993.
Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.
Propagation Of Pacific Northwest Native Plants, Rose, R., Chachluski, E., and Haase, D., Oregon State University Press, 1998.