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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Rosaceae
Family Common Name: Rose family
Scientific Name: Crataegus douglasii Lindl.
Common Name: Black hawthorn
Species Code: CRADOU
Ecotype: Lake McDonald Creek margin, 1100 m elevation, Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.
General Distribution: C. douglasii occurs form Alaska to California, from the coast inland to Alberta, the Dakotas, Wyoming, and east to Ontario.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 22 cm
Caliper: 7 mm
Root System: firm plug in containers.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected in late summer and early fall when fruit turns dark purple. Seeds are tan at maturity. Fruits are collected in plastic bags and kept under refrigeration prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned by maceration of fruit using a Dyb-vig seed cleaner followed by screening. Seeds are cleaned at NRCS.
Seed longevity is up to 10 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
% Purity: 100%
% Germination:50%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are washed 3:1 Water/Hydrogen Peroxide for 20 minutes followed by a 48 to 72 hour running water soak. Seeds are placed into a 90 to 120 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are placed in fine mesh bags and is buried in milled sphagnum peat moss in a ventilated container under refrigeration set at 1 to 3C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor Nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with media.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat,perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer 12%S, 0.1%B ,0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Germination is uniform and usually complete in 2 weeks. Seed germination occurs at 21C. Seedlings are thinned at this stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedling growth is rapid following germination. Plants respond to thinning quickly and produce 4 to 6 true leaves in 2 weeks. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm and increase in height to 16 centimeters in 13 weeks. Plants are root tight in 17 weeks.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 9 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Avalanche, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: May and June
C. douglasii is an excellent soil and streambank stabilizer but does not typically occupy disturbed sites.
Other Comments: 3L (1 gallon) container stock can be produced in 1 year with an average height of 25 cm and a caliper of 1.0 cm.
C. douglasii provides food and cover for many wildlife species. Birds use thickets for nesting. Berries are an important food source to bears and birds.
There are 2 botanical varieties of this species; var. suksdorfii, and var. douglasii.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1973.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.

Seeds of the Woody Plants in the United States, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, U.S.F.S., Washington D.C., 1974.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, N., published June,1993.

Glacier National Park Propagation records, unpublished.

Wick, Dale; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Crataegus douglasii Lindl. plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 4 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.