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Protocol Information

Jan Schultz
Forest Plant Ecologist
USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest
1030 Wright Street
Marquette, Michigan 49855
906.228.8491
906.228.4484
jschultz@fs.fed.us


Family Scientific Name: Caprifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Honeysuckle Family
Scientific Name: Viburnum opulus L.
Common Name: Highbush cranberry
Species Code: VIOP
General Distribution: Swamps (both hardwood and conifers) borders of woods and shores, wet roadsides, ditches, banks and thickets along rivers and streams, fens. Woody multi-stemmed shrub.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Propagule Collection: Seed is collected from locally native plants within the eastern central Upper Peninsula. Fruit is red and the size of a cranberry.
Propagule Processing: Remove the pulp as soon as possible after picking by stripping off the pulp by hand or very lightly in a blender with water or rubbing the berry on a sieve and floating off the pulp. Dry seeds for 1 week. Once seeds have dried begin stratification.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Statification: Use a Ziploc-style bag or a small Rubbermaid-style container to mix an equal amount of seeds with either perlite or vermiculite. Add a small amount of water. (There should be no visible water in the bag or container). Place in a refrigerator or garage (33-42 degrees F) for at least 3 months. Cold store until planted (up to 3 years).
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse film is made of Standard U.V. 3 HL Clear 6 mil (J.R. Johnson's Greenhouse Supply Inc.) Fans run continuously to circulate the air. Vents open during the summer months for cooling. Container Type: grows best in 24 cell (2"diameter) 14"x8.5"x4" deep flats, and other flats with 2" diameter or more and depths of 4" or more. Sowing Media: Scotts Redi-earth Plug and Seedling Mix. Contains vermiculite, and sphagnum peat moss. Soil is sterile.

Thoroughly moisten the soil with water, mixing in the water with a trowel. Cover the holes in the bottom/sides of the plugh tray cells with newspaper so that the soil does not fall out. Fill cells with damp soil and press soil down with a spoon. Refill the cell plugs with soil to the top, this time not pressing it down. Water the soil in the plug cells again. Sow the seeds by hand at a rate of about 1 seed in each small cell and 2 seeds in each cell with a diameter greater than 2.5". Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil or gently press the seeds into the dirt. Sow year-round due to unpredictable germination.

Establishment Phase: From Jan. until Aug. the greenhouse thermostat is set at 65 degrees F both day and night. Ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 100 degrees F during the day in the summer. From Sept. thru Dec. the thermostat is set at 55 degrees F. During this season ambient greenhouse temperatures may reach 75 degrees during the day. The greenhouse holds plants at all stages of growth so the temperature setting stays that same for all plants at all stages of growth. Soil is kept consistently damp during germination. Water using a fine mist or light hose setting only. Newly planted trays are placed on the south side of the greenhouse. No artificial light is used.
Active Growth Phase: The soil does not have to be consistently moist. Move trays to cooler north greenhouse tables. No fertilizers are used.
Hardening Phase: In early-late spring, mature plants can be moved into a cold frame with a cover of material that diffuses sunlight to prevent scorching of the plants. When danger of frost has passed leave plants outside. Water less frequently.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: In the Upper Peninsula, flats are planted from late May to early October. Flats that are not planted in the summer remain in the greenhouse for another season.
Other Comments: Grows fairly readily and quickly.

Citation:
Schultz, Jan; Beyer, Patty.; Williams, Julie. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Viburnum opulus L. plants; USDA FS - Hiawatha National Forest, Marquette, Michigan. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 21 November 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.