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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass family
Scientific Name: Phleum alpinum L.
Common Synonym: Phleum commutatum Gaudin
Common Name: Alpine timothy
Species Code: PHLALP
Ecotype: Subalpine meadows, Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, MT. 2032m elevation.
General Distribution: P. alpinum occurs in subalpine to alpine meadows and stream banks; from Alaska to Newfoundland, south to most of the montane and subalpine areas of the western U.S. It is also found at high elevations in South America, and Europe.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 8 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 6 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Collect mature inflorescences in late August when florets turn tan. Seeds are light tan at maturity. Hand held sickles are used to cut stalks. Seeds are spread on a tarp in a drying shed and turned twice a day prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with a small clipper and air blower at NRCS.
Seed Storage is at least 7 years.
Seed dormancy is classified as non dormant.
Seeds/Kg: 2,200,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 98%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month outdoor cold, moist stratification was used, however no stratification is required.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification. Seedlings germinate in spring under fluctuating outdoor temperatures and are grown under full sun exposure. Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept slightly moist during germination. Germination is usually complete in 1 to 2 weeks.
Length of Establishment Phase: 2 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Shoot and root development occurs rapidly following germination. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK fertilizer until root tightness is obtained. Plants are outplanted the first year.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 6 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 2 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 8 months using a long stratification.
Harvest Date: July to August
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: After snowmelt at high elevations.
Outplanting Survival at 3 years: 90%
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Yes; established nursery stock can be increased by divisions but this is not done operationally.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.<> Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.<> Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

1999 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J. and Brenneman, B., unpublished.

Wick, Dale; Evans, Jeff.; Luna, Tara.; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Phleum alpinum L. plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.