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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Poaceae
Family Common Name: Grass family
Scientific Name: Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes
Common Synonym: Koeleria cristata Pers.
Common Name: Prairie Junegrass
Species Code: KOEMAC
Ecotype: Festuca idahoensis grassland, Rising Sun, Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT., 1585m elevation.
General Distribution: K. macrantha occurs in sagebrush deserts, prairies, open forests to open ridges in the subalpine zone on rocky or well drained soils. It ranges from B.C. to northern Mexico, east to Ontario and Maine, throughout the western states south to Texas and Louisiana. It is also found in Delaware.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 12 Weeks
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 10 to 20 true leaves, 10 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in mid to late August when florets turn from papery and tan and seeds are easily shaken out of florets. Seeds are collected by cutting the entire inflorescence just prior to shattering. Seeds are spread on an opened tarp in the drying shed.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a de-huller at NRCS.
Seed Storage is estimated at 3 to 5 years at 3 to 5 C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as non dormant.
Seeds/Kg: 2,000,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 40%
Pre-Planting Treatments: None. Germination is reported to be higher in the presence of light.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Greenhouse and Outdoor Nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds should be surface sown.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept slightly moist during germination.
Length of Establishment Phase: 3 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Root and shoot development occurs rapidly following germination. Seedlings develop 4 to 6 true leaves 3 weeks after germination. Seedlings were fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm during the growing season.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 9 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are leached with clear water once before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 12 weeks
Harvest Date:July
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: September
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Deno, Norman, Penn State University, 1993.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Wick, Dale; Lapp, Joyce.; Evans, Jeff. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes plants (160 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 30 August 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.