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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Rhamnaceae
Family Common Name: Buckthorn family
Scientific Name: Rhamnus alnifolia L’Her
Common Name: Alder buckthorn
Species Code: RHAALN
Ecotype: Gravel bar of stream; adjacent to Pine/ Fir forest, Many Glacier, Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT. 1585m elevation.
General Distribution: R. alnifolia occurs east of the Cascades, from B.C. to California, east to Quebec and Maine, and to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 11 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 5 cm
Caliper: 7 mm
Root System: Firm plug in conetainers.
Propagule Collection: Collect mature fruits when they turn black in September. Seeds are brown at maturity. Fruit is collected in plastic bags and kept under refrigeration prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned by maceration using a Dybvig seed cleaner.
Seed Storage is at least 5 to 7 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 5,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 75%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month outdoor cold, moist stratification.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification.
Seedlings germinate in spring under fluctuating outdoor temperatures and are grown under full sun exposure. Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Establishment Phase: Germination began in early June and was very uniform. True leaves were evident 2 weeks after germination and were thinned at this stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Shoot and root growth occurred rapidly after thinning. Plants were fertilized with 13-13-13 liquid NPK fertilizer during the growing season. 50% of seedlings were root tight 7 weeks after germination.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 10 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 11 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation, Dirr and Heuser, Varsity Press, 1987.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998. Glacier National Park Propagation Records, unpublished.

Luna, Tara; Wick, Dale.; Evans, Jeff. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Rhamnus alnifolia L’Her plants (160 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 5 September 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.