Mark E. Majerus
USDA NRCS - Bridger Plant Materials Center
99 South River Road, Rte. 2, Box 1189
Bridger, Montana 59014-9718
|Family Scientific Name:
|Family Common Name:
||Alaska to southern California, mostly eastern Cascades, east to Atlantic, and in Eurasia; meadows and moist banks.
||Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
||Harvest yields vary due to weather and age of stand. Average annual
production is 46 kg/ha (41 lb/ac).
||Wildland collection occurs early August to mid September when
the yellow flower has turned brown and the achene is wrinkled and corky; difficult to hand-harvest because of prostrate, stoloniferous form.
One collection hour/person will yield an average 34 grams (1.2 oz) clean seed (ranged 27 to 40 grams and varies by year, stand density, and collector experience).
||Seed Processing: Seed is spread out on a tarp in a dry, sheltered environment and turned daily for approximately 3-5 days, until no moisture or warmth is detected. Seed is threshed with a hammermill through a 4/64” round hole screen, air-screen processed on an Office Clipper over a 1-20” round hole screen with very low wind. Due to tiny seed, absence of seed debris, and moderate seed flow, this species is moderately easy to clean. Larger seed lots are processed most efficiently with mechanized cleaning equipment and smaller seed lots usually require more hand labor.
||Seed Treatments: None required.
|Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Propagation Environment:Seedbed is firm and free of weeds with good field moisture to 4” depth.
Seed Propagation Method: Direct seeding.
||Sowing Date: Spring.
Sowing/Planting Technique: 25-30 pure live seed/ft. (0.3 m) row, irrigated 91cm (36 in) row spacing, seeded with 2-row double-disk planter with
depth bands, optimum seeding depth 0.6 cm (0.25 in).
Establishment Phase: Soil surface is kept moist
throughout the 14 day germination and emergence period (also helps prevent soil
Fertilizer application is not recommended the first year, as it generally stimulates weed growth and competition.
|Length of Establishment Phase:
||2 growing seasons.
|Active Growth Phase:
||Rapid Growth Phase: Spring to fall; soil moisture is critical during budding stage, after anthesis, and post harvest to pre-freezeup –no irrigation is applied during
flowering (pollination); fertilizer is broadcast at 100 lbs actual N/40 lbs actual P/acre in mid-September.
|Length of Active Growth Phase:
||2 to 3 growing seasons.
|Harvesting, Storage and Shipping:
||Harvest Date:) Cultivated harvest occurs late June to late July, with a mean harvest date of July 12 at the Bridger Plant Materials Center.
Hand-harvesting is required because the seedheads are
low to the ground.
Seed Storage:Seed is placed in plastic ziplock bags (seed is so small it may sneak out of paper containers), repeatedly punctured to prevent moisture buildup, placed in cloth or plastic seed sacks, and stored in a cool, dry environment.
Seed Dormancy: Classified as physiological dormancy.
|Length of Storage:
||Storage Duration: 5 to 7 years.
|Outplanting performance on typical sites:
||Outplanting Sites: Dunraven Pass to Canyon and
Fishing Bridge to Lake Butte. Northeast Entrance.
||Flora of the Pacific Northwest, C. L. Hitchcock and A. Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 1973.
Yellowstone Vegetation – Consequences of Environment and History in a Natural Setting, Don G. Despain, Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1990.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, C. C.
Baskin and J. M. Baskin, Academic Press, 2001.
|Winslow, Susan R. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Argentina anserina seeds; USDA NRCS - Bridger Plant Materials Center, Bridger, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 10 December 2013). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.|