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Protocol Information

Richard L. Wynia
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Manhattan Plant Materials Center
3800 S. 20th Street
Manhattan, Kansas 66502-9535
(785) 539-8761
(785) 539-6928

Family Scientific Name: Chenopodiaceae
Family Common Name: Goosefoot
Scientific Name: Krascheninnikovia lanata
Common Name: Winterfat OR Lambstail OR White Sage
General Distribution: Stony hillsides, dry soils of plains, lower foothills, and valleys that are moderately impregnated with alkaline or saline material. This species is usually intermixed with various saltbushes, bunch-grasses, rabbitbrush, and greasewood.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Propagule Processing: EASE OF COLLECTION: Easily hand stripped from plant inflorescences.
METHOD OF CLEANING: Standard methods including the use of rub board, desk-top office cleaner, and South Dakota seed blower. Fruit is a one-seeded utricle with 2 bracteoles that become 4-6 mm long, each with a hornlike tip. The bracteoles are densely hirsute. The fruit is oval, flat, 1.8-2.2 mm long, and covered with white pubescence. The presence of these pubescent trichomes creates the most difficulty in the cleaning process.
UNUSUAL OR UNIQUE PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS: Pubescence makes seed processing difficult and time consuming. Mechanical damage caused by seed processing and bract removal can result in loss of geotropic response by seedlings (Booth 1984).
PROPAGATION METHOD: Seed. Optimum germination is expressed by alternating temperature regimes. Germination requires no pretreatment. Germinates at 59ºF, 55.4ºF, 60.8-77ºF, or 59-77ºF, first count 3 to 7 days, last count 7 to 14 days. Temperatures below 44.6ºF slow germination. Seedling vigor related to seed source and age. Tetrazolium test: Remove bracts, lay seed on moist blotters overnight, puncture seed, soak 4 hours in 0.1 % tetrazolium solution at room temperature (Moyer and Lang 1976; Springfield 1972, 1973; Weber and Wiesner 1980).
NUMBER OF SEEDS PER POUND: Seeds per pound will vary by ecotype but average 125,000 with bracts intact. Hammermilled seed with bracts removed averages 200,000 seeds per pound.
PERCENT GERMINATION: Germination is variable, ranging from 17%-100%; with good seed quality it will average 85%-90%. No benefit to germination found with potassium nitrate.
Pre-Planting Treatments: PRETREATMENT USED: Freshly harvested seed may require prechilling of 41ºF for 14 days prior to germination.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

METHOD OF GROWING: Seeded at less than 1/4-inch, 15-20 PLS per square foot.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: SEED MATURITY DATE: Fall.
UNUSUAL OR UNIQUE HARVESTING OR DIGGING REQUIREMENTS: Collection of seed is best accomplished by hand removal although combine harvesting has been successful.
STORAGE REQUIREMENTS: Utricle, with bracteoles, stored at 39.2ºF in sealed containers for up to 8 years. Fruit stored 3 years at 10% moisture in sealed containers at 41-68ºF. Storage at room temperature decreases viability (Springfield 1974).
ESTIMATED PROPAGULE STORAGE POTENTIAL: Stored for years under the correct environmental conditions.
Other Comments: RE-ESTABLISHMENT TECHNIQUES: (Winterfat) Success in artifical seeding has been limited. Winterfat is important species in programs to revegetate lands disturbed in strip mining (Young and Young, 1992.)
References: Allen,P.S., S.E. Meyer, and T.D. Davis. 1987. Determining seed quality of winterfat (Ceratoides Ianata). Journal of Seed Technology 11(1): 7-14.

Booth, D.T. 1984. Threshing damage to radicle apex affects geotropic response of winterfat. Journal of Range Management 37(3): 222-224.

Booth, D.T. 1990. Seedbed ecology of winterfat: Effects of mother- plant transpiration, wind stress, and nutrition on seedling vigor. Journal of Range Management 43:20-24.

Booth, D.T. 1992. Seedbed ecology of winterfat: Imbibition temperature affects post-termination growth. Journal of Range Management 45:159-164.

Dettori, M.L., J.F. Balliette, J.A. Young, and R.A. Evans. 1984. Temperature profiles of germination of two species of winterfat. Journal of Range Management 37:218-222.

Moyer, J.L., and R.L. Lang. 1976. Variable germination response to temperature for different sources of winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) seed. Journal of Range Management 29(4):320-321.

Springfield, H.W. 1968. “Age and year of Collection Affect Germination of Winterfat Seeds.” Res. Not RM-112, 2p. USDA Forest Service, Ft. Collins, CO.

Springfield, H.W. 1972. Optimum temperatures for germination of winterfat. Journal of Range Management 25: 69-70.

Springfield, H.W. 1973. Larger seeds of winterfat germinate better. Journal of Range Management 26(2):153-154.

Springfield, H.W. 1974. Winterfat seeds viable after 8 years refrigerated storage. Journal of Range Management 27:78.

Stubbendieck, J., S. L. Hatch, and K. J. Kjar. 1982. North American Range Plants, 2d ed. Lincoln, NE: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1937, 1985.

Van Dersal, W.R. 1938. Native Woody Plants of the United States, Their Erosion Control and Wildlife Value. USDA Misc. Pub. No. 303. Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Weber, J.E., and L.E. Wiesner. 1980. Tetrazoluim test procedures for native shrubs and forbs. Journal of Seed Technology 5(2): 23-24.

Wynia, Richard 2006. Propagation protocol for production of Krascheninnikovia lanata seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 19 April 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.